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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Characteristics and synergistic effects of co-combustion of carbonaceous wastes with coal

Onenc S, Retschitzegger S, Evic N, Kienzl N. Characteristics and synergistic effects of co-combustion of carbonaceous waste with coal. ATHENS 2017 5th International Conference on Sustainable Solid Waste Management (Poster). June 2017, Athens, Greece.

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This study presents combustion behavior and emission results obtained for different fuels: poultry litter (PL) and its char (PLC), scrap tires (ST) and its char (STC) and blends of char/lignite (PLC/LIG and STC/LIG). The combustion parameters and emissions were investigated via a non-isothermal thermogravimetric method and experiments in a lab-scale reactor. Fuel indexes were used for the prediction of high temperature corrosion risks and slagging potentials of the fuels used. The addition of chars to lignite caused a lowering of the combustion reactivity (anti-synergistic effect). There was a linear correlation between the NOx emissions and the N content of the fuel. The form of S and the concentrations of alkali metals in the fuel had a strong effect on the extent of SO2 emissions. The use of PL and PLC in blends reduced SO2 emissions and sulphur compounds in the fly ash. The 2S/Cl ratio in the fuel showed that only PLC and STC/PLC would show a risk of corrosion during combustion. The ratio of basic to acidic oxides in fuel indicated that ST, STC and STC/LIG have low slagging potential. The molar (Si + P + K)/(Ca + Mg) ratio, which was used for PL, PLC and PLC containing blends, showed that the ash melting temperatures of these fuels would be higher than 1000 °C.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Characteristics of adapted hydrogenotrophic community during biomethanation

Rachbauer L, Beyer R, Bochmann G, Fuchs W. Characteristics of adapted hydrogenotrophic community during biomethanation. Science of The Total Environment. 1 October 2017;595: 912-919.

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Scientific Journals | 2019

Characterization and performance evaluation of ammonia as fuel for solid oxide fuel cells with Ni/YSZ anodes

Stoeckl B, Subotić V, Preininger M, Schwaiger M, Evic N, Schroettner H, Hochenauer C. Characterization and performance evaluation of ammonia as fuel for solid oxide fuel cells with Ni/YSZ anodes. Electrochimica Acta 2019;298:874-883.

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Ammonia appears to be a promising fuel for solid oxide fuel cell systems: it is a carbon-free species, can be stored easily and offers an excellent energy density with a high hydrogen content. This work shows comprehensive investigations of the direct operation of ammonia on an industrial-sized solid oxide fuel cell with Ni/YSZ anode. In the course of this study, ammonia exhibited excellent performance as a fuel for solid oxide fuel cells, although test results equivalent to those of hydrogen/nitrogen fuel mixtures were not attained. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy proved the reduced performance output of ammonia as fuel to result from its endothermic decomposition. This significantly increased the ohmic resistance, which is mainly influenced by the ammonia flow rate. Operation in counter-flow is more favorable than in co-flow, as lower ohmic and diffusion resistances were measured. Twenty-four-hour stability tests showed stable behavior at 800 °C and a voltage decrease of 2% at 700 °C. Investigations of the anode micro-structure suggest that nickel nitriding occurred, as microscopic pores, particle enlargements, and agglomerations were identified at the metallic parts.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Characterization of biochars produced from pyrolysis of pelletized agricultural residues

Colantoni A, Evic N, Lord R, Retschitzegger S, Proto A, Gallucci F, Monarca D. Characterization of biochars produced from pyrolysis of pelletized agricultural residues. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 1 October 2016;64: 187-194.

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Biochars produced from pelletized grape vine (GV) and sunflower husk (SFH) agricultural residues were studied by pyrolysis in a batch reactor at 400 and 500 °C. Chemical and physical evolution of the biomass under pyrolysis conditions was determined and the products were characterized, including the main gaseous organic components. Results showed a decrease in solid biochar yield with increasing temperature. Biochar is defined as a “porous carbonaceous solid” produced by thermochemical conversion of organic materials in an oxygen depleted atmosphere, which has physiochemical properties suitable for the safe and long-term storage of carbon in the environment and, potentially, soil improvement. The aim of this work is to improve the knowledge and acceptability of alternative use of the biochar gained from agro-forestry biomass residuals, such as grape vine and sunflower husks, by means of modern chemical and physical characterization tools.


Conference contributions | 2013

Characterization of modern biomass heating and domestic hot water supply systems

Haslinger W, Schmidl C, Schwarz M, Schwabl M, Golicza L, Carlon E, Wopienka E, Verma V. Characterization of modern biomass heating and domestic hot water supply systems, 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2013, 3rd-7th of June 2013, Copenhagen, Denmark.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoates produced by Synechocystis salina from digestate supernatant

Kovalcik A, Meixner K, Mihalic M, Zeilinger W, Fritz I, Fuchs W, Kucharczyk P, Stelzer F, Drosg B. Characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoates produced by Synechocystis salina from digestate supernatant. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 1 September 2017;102: 497-504.

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Peer-reviewed publications | 2012

CHP-Plant Güssing, Austria

Rauch R. CHP-Plant Güssing, Austria. Handbook biomass gasification - Second Edition. ISBN 9789081938501 2012:32-36.

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Other publication | 2017

Clean Air by Biomass - Demonstration of clean and efficient combustion of biomass

Klauser F, Schwabl M, Reichert G, Schmidl C, Weissinger A. Clean Air by Biomass - Demonstration of clean and efficient combustion of biomass. 5th Central European Biomass Conference (Poster). January 2017, Graz, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2020

CleanAir by biomass

Sturmlechner R, Stressler H, Golicza L, Reichert G, Schwabl M, Höftberger E, Kelz J. CleanAir by biomass. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 2020, Graz.

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Other publication | 2017

CleanAir by Biomass - Status Quo Analysis of the Model Region

Klauser F, Sturmlechner R, Schwabl M, Reichert G, Schmidl C, Weissinger A, Haslinger W, Stressler H. CleanAir by Biomass - Status Quo Analysis of the Model Region. 25th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (oral presentation). June 2017, Stockholm, Sweden.

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Other Publications | 2022

CleanAir2 project – citizen science investigating real-life emission from firewood stove

Schwabl M. CleanAir2 project – citizen science investigating real-life emission from firewood stove. Workshop 2: Advances in Instrumentation Used for Wood Heater Testing and Field Data Collection. March 2022.

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Conference contributions | 2009

Cleaning and Usage of Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification

Rauch R. Cleaning and Usage of Product Gas from Biomass Steam Gasification, Gasification 2009 –gas clean up and treatment, 22th-23th of October 2009, Clarion Hotel Sign, Stockholm, Sweden.

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Conference contributions | 2009

Climate Impact of a Private Company`s Choice, Poster

Ragossnig A, Wartha C, Pomberger R. Climate Impact of a Private Company`s Choice, Poster, Waste & Climate 2009, 7th-18th of September, Copenhagen, Denmark.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

Closing the Nutrient Cycle in Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion of Industrial Waste Streams

Rachbauer L, Gabauer W, Scheidl S, Ortner M, Fuchs W, Bochmann G. Closing the Nutrient Cycle in Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion of Industrial Waste Streams. Energy Fuels 2015;29(7):4052-4057.

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Industrial waste streams from brewing industries and distilleries provide a valuable but largely unused alternative substrate for biogas production by anaerobic digestion. High sulfur loads in the feed caused by acidic pretreatment to enhance bioavailability are responsible for H2S formation during anaerobic digestion. Microbiological oxidation of H2S provides an elegant technique to remove this toxic gas compound. Moreover, it allows for recovery of sulfuric acid, the final product of aerobic sulfide oxidation, as demonstrated in this study. Two-stage anaerobic digestion of brewer’s spent grains, the major byproduct in the brewing industry, allows for the release of up to 78% of total H2S formed in the first pre-acidification stage. Desulfurization of such pre-acidification gas in continuous acidic biofiltration with immobilized sulfur-oxidizing bacteria resulted in a maximum H2S elimination capacity of 473 g m–3 h–1 at an empty bed retention time of 91 s. Complete H2S removal was achieved at inlet concentrations of up to 6363 ppm. The process was shown to be very robust, and even after an interruption of H2S feeding for 10 days, excellent removal efficiency was immediately restored. A maximum sulfate production rate of 0.14 g L–1 h–1 was achieved, and a peak concentration of 4.18 g/L sulfuric acid was reached. Further experiments addressed the reduction of fresh water and chemicals to minimize process expenses. It was proven that up to 50% of mineral medium that is required in large amounts during microbiological desulfurization can be replaced by the liquid fraction of the digestate. The conducted study demonstrates the viability of microbial sulfur recovery with theoretical recovery rates of up to 44%.


Conference contributions | 2012

CO aus Holzpellets. Bildung, Charakterisierung und Maßnahmen

Emhofer W, Aigenbauer S. CO aus Holzpellets. Bildung, Charakterisierung und Maßnahmen, 12. Holzenergiesymposium 2012, 14th of September 2012, Zürich, Schweiz. p 147-158 (peer reviewed)

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Conference contributions | 2012

CO off‐gassing from pellets: Impact of raw material choice and storage conditions – Implications for pellets standardization

Emhofer W. CO off‐gassing from pellets: Impact of raw material choice and storage conditions – Implications for pellets standardization, World Bioenergy 2012, 29th-31st of May 2012 Jönköping, Sweden.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Co-firing of imported wood pellets - an option to efficiently save CO2 emissions in Europe?

Ehrig R, Behrendt F. Co-firing of imported wood pellets - An option to efficiently save CO2 emissions in Europe? Energy Policy. 2013;59:283-300.

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In this paper the energy and carbon footprints of pellet imports from Australia, West Canada, and Russia for co-firing in Europe are investigated. Their ecologic and economic performances are proven by applying the Belgian and UK co-firing subsidy systems, which require dedicated sustainability evaluations. Based on the modelling of different subsidy schemes and price scenarios, the present paper identifies favourable conditions for the use of biomass co-firing in Germany and Austria, which currently do not have dedicated co-firing incentives. The present paper shows that under present conditions, co-firing has a narrow financial gap to coal with -3 to 4€ Cent/kWhel and has low CO2 mitigation costs compared to other renewables. Moreover, it is shown that co-firing is one of the most cost-attractive options to reach the EU-2020 targets. For policy makers, the support of co-firing is found to be very efficient in terms of cost-benefit ratio. It is proven that the co-firing subsidy schemes might direct supply chain decisions towards options with low energy and carbon impacts. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
 


Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Co-gasification of plastics and biomass in a dual fluidized-bed steam gasifier: Possible interactions of fuels

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Co-gasification of plastics and biomass in a dual fluidized-bed steam gasifier: Possible interactions of fuels. Energy and Fuels. 2013;27(6):3261-73.

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Co-gasification of biomass and plastics was investigated in a 100 kW dual fluidized-bed pilot plant using four types of plastic material of different origins and soft wood pellets. The proportion of plastics was varied within a broad range to assess the interaction of the materials. The product gas composition was considerably influenced by co-gasification, whereas the changes were nonlinear. More CO and CO2 were measured in the product gas from co-gasification than would be expected from linear interpolation of mono-gasification of the materials. Less CH4 and C2H 4 were formed, and the tar content in the product gas was considerably lower than presumed. With the generation of more product gas than expected, co-gasification of wood and plastic materials also had other beneficial effects. Because of the fuel mixtures, more radicals of different types were available that interacted with each other and with the fluidization steam, enhancing the reforming reactions. Wood char had a positive effect on polymer decomposition, steam reforming, and tar reduction. As a result of the more active splash zone during co-gasification of wood and plastics, contact between gas and bed material was enhanced, which is crucial for catalytic tar removal. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Other Publications | 2021

CO-lambda Optimierung - Betrieb von Biomassefeuerungen mit maximaler Effizienz und minimalen Emissionen

Zemann C. CO-lambda Optimierung - Betrieb von Biomassefeuerungen mit maximaler Effizienz und minimalen Emissionen. CO-lambda Optimierung - Betrieb von Biomassefeuerungen mit maximaler Effizienz und minimalen Emissionen. March 2021.

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Technical Reports | 2019

CO-Lambda optimization

Operation of biomass boilers at maximum efficiency and with complete combustion

Zemann C, Gölles M. CO-Lambda optimization - Operation of biomass boilers at maximum efficiency and with complete combustion. 2019.

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Technical Reports | 2019

CO-Lambda-Optimierung

Betrieb von Feuerungen bei maximalem Wirkungsgrad und vollständigem Ausbrand

Zemann C, Gölles M. CO-Lambda-Optimierung - Betrieb von Feuerungen bei maximalem Wirkungsgrad und vollständigem Ausbrand. 2019.

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Reviewed Conference Papers | 2019

Co-Simulation of an Energy Management System for Future City District Energy Systems

Moser AGC, Muschick D, Gölles M, Lerch W, Schranzhofer H, Nageler PJ et al. Co-Simulation of an Energy Management System for Future City District Energy Systems. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Innovative Applied Energy. 2019.

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The continuous increase of (volatile) renewable energy production and the development of energy-efficient buildings have led to a transformation of city districts’ energy systems. Their complexity has increased significantly due to the coupling of the different energy sectors like heating, cooling and electricity. Such complex multi-energy systems can be operated more efficiently and reliably if knowledge of their specific components (in terms of mathematical models) as well as knowledge of weather forecasts is incorporated in a high-level controller, which is typically referred to as an Energy Management System (EMS). However, still little comprehensive information on the costs and the practical advantages of such systems is available. For this reason, a simulation environment to estimate the real costs and advantages of the use of such an EMS is required. Consequently, this work focuses on the development of an EMS for future city districts’ energy systems and the development of a co-simulation environment in order to demonstrate the benefits of the use of the developed EMS in comparison to a conventional control strategy. The co-simulation is implemented with the aid of the co-simulation platform Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) and consists of the following parts: a non-linear, thermoelectric model and a control block containing either the conventional control strategy or the EMS. The thermoelectric model is built up using the well-established simulation tools TRNSYS and IDA-ICE, simulating the energy hub of the city district and the districts’ buildings, respectively. The control block is simulated using MATLAB, where IBM ILOG CPLEX is used for solving the resulting mixed-integer linear program (MILP) of the EMS. Finally, an economic model for financial (and ecological) assessment of the operation is simulated with the aid of the software package Dymola. To put the developed EMS and the co-simulation into practise a case study based on a new city district in Graz, Austria, which is currently in the planning stage, is carried out. The integration of the responsible planners and investors in the modelling process guarantees the models’ practical applicability. In the case study the performance of the originally planned conventional control strategy is compared with the performance of the developed EMS using annual simulations with a simulation time step of 1 minute, and a 24 hour prediction horizon and a 15 minute time step for the EMS. For a more robust and realistic comparison both control strategies are simulated for different scenarios considering current and future (2060) climate conditions, medium and high energy demands (load), ideal and real load prediction methods and varying import prices for electricity from the electricity grid. The results show that the use of the developed EMS strategy results in reduced annual total costs (considering operational and investment costs of additionally suggested distributed energy resources) in comparison to the conventional control strategy. Furthermore, the annual CO2-emissions could be reduced by increasing the self-consumption of the installed (renewable) energy resources and thus decreasing the necessary energy imports from the electricity and the heating grid.


Conference contributions | 2019

Co-Simulation of an Energy Management System for Future City District Energy Systems (Presentation)

Moser AGC, Muschick D, Gölles M, Lerch W, Schranzhofer H, Nageler PJ et al. Co-Simulation of an Energy Management System for Future City District Energy Systems. International Conference on Innovative Applied Energy. 2019. (Oral presentation, 15.03.2019.)

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Slides of the talk "Co-Simulation of an Energy Management System for Future City District Energy Systems"


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

CO/CO2 Ratio in biomass char oxidation

Anca-Couce A, Sommersacher P, Shiehnejadhesar A, Mehrabian R, Hochenauer C, Scharler R. CO/CO2 Ratio in biomass char oxidation. INFUB 2017, 11th European Conference on Industrial Furnace and Boilers. 18-21 April 2017, Albufeira, Portugal.

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The CO/CO2 release ratio obtained during char combustion of single biomass particles has been analysed in this work experimentally and by modelling. Experiments have been conducted with spruce, straw and Miscanthus pellets at different temperatures. Furthermore, these experiments have been modelled with a single particle model coupled with a CFD model of the single particle reactor. The results show that the CO/CO2 ratio strongly depends on the feedstock, being lower for spruce than for straw or Miscanthus. Furthermore, the most commonly employed correlations for this ratio in literature are not adequate, as they either under- or over-predict it.


Studien | 2018

CO2-Einsparungskosten

Analyse der Sektoren Mobilität und Wärmebereitstellung

Strasser C, Sturmlechner R, Schwarz M. CO2-Einsparungskosten.2018

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Dieser Bericht bietet eine ERhebung dero CO2e-Einsparungskosten außerhalb des ETS-Handels für den Bereich der Mobilität sowie der Wärmebereitstellung im häuslichen Sektor und Fern- und Nahwärme.