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Publikationen


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Decentralized heating grid operation: A comparison of centralized and agent-based optimization

Lichtenegger K, Leitner A, Märzinger T, Mair C, Moser A, Wöss D, Schmidl C, Pröll T. Decentralized heating grid operation: A comparison of centralized and agent-based optimization. Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks. 2020;2020(21).

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Moving towards a sustainable heat supply calls for decentralized and smart heating grid solutions. One promising concept is the decentralized feed-in by consumers equipped with their own small production units (prosumers). Prosumers can provide an added value regarding security of supply, emission reduction and economic welfare, but in order to achieve this, in addition to advanced hydraulic control strategies also superordinate control strategies and appropriate market models become crucial.

In this article we study methods to find a global optimum for the local energy community or at least an acceptable approximation to it. In contrast to standard centralized control approaches, based either on expert rules or mixed integer linear optimization, we adopt an agent-based, decentralized approach that allows for incorporation of nonlinear phenomena. While studied here in small-scale systems, this approach is particularly attractive for larger systems, since with an increasing number of interacting units, the optimization problem becomes more complex and the computational effort for centralized approaches increases dramatically.

The agent-based optimization approach is compared to centralized optimization of the same prosumer-based setting as well as to a purely central setup. The comparison is based on the quality of the optimization solution, the computational effort and the scalability. For the comparison of these three approaches, three different scenarios have been set up and analysed for four seasons. In this analysis, no approach has emerged as clearly superior to the others; thus each of them is justified in certain situations.


Conference contributions | 2020

Optimization based planning of energy systems

Zellinger M, Optimization based planning of energy systems. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz.

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Scientific Journals | 2019

Efficient Multi-Year Economic Energy Planning in Microgrids

Pecenak Z, Stadler M, Fahy K, Efficient Multi-Year Economic Energy Planning in Microgrids. Applied Energy 2019;225.

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With energy systems, the problem of economic planning is decisive in the design of a low carbon and resilient future grid. Although several tools to solve the problem already exist in literature and industry, most tools only consider a single “typical year” while providing investment decisions that last around a quarter of a century. In this paper, we introduce why such an approach is limited and derive two approaches to correct this. The first approach, the Forward-Looking model, assumes perfect knowledge and makes investment decisions based on the full planning horizon. The second novel approach, the Adaptive method, solves the optimization problem in single year iterations, making incremental investment decisions that are dependant on previous years, with only knowledge of the current year. Comparing the two approaches on a realistic microgrid, we find little difference in investment decisions (maximum 21% difference in total cost over 20 years), but large differences in optimization time (up to 12000% time difference). We close the paper by discussing implications of forecasting errors on the microgrid planning process, concluding that the Adaptive approach is a suitable choice.


Conference Papers | 2019

Ganzheitliche Planung dezentraler Energiekonzepte durch mathematische Optimierung

Liedtke P, Stadler M, Zellinger M, Hengl F. Ganzheitliche Planung dezentraler Energiekonzepte durch mathematische Optimierung. e-nova Konferenz 2019.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2019

Input data reduction for microgrid sizing and energy cost modeling: Representative days and demand charges

Fahy K, Stadler M, Pecenak ZK, Kleissl J. Input data reduction for microgrid sizing and energy cost modeling: Representative days and demand charges. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy. 2019.11:065301

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Computational time in optimization models scales with the number of time steps. To save time, solver time resolution can be reduced and input data can be down-sampled into representative periods such as one or a few representative days per month. However, such data reduction can come at the expense of solution accuracy. In this work, the impact of reduction of input data is systematically isolated considering an optimization which solves an energy system using representative days. A new data reduction method aggregates annual hourly demand data into representative days which preserve demand peaks in the original profiles. The proposed data reduction approach is tested on a real energy system and real annual hourly demand data where the system is optimized to minimize total annual costs. Compared to the full-resolution optimization of the energy system, the total annual energy cost error is found to be equal or less than 0.22% when peaks in customer demand are preserved. Errors are significantly larger for reduction methods that do not preserve peak demand. Solar photovoltaic data reduction effects are also analyzed. This paper demonstrates a need for data reduction methods which consider demand peaks explicitly.

 


Other Presentations | 2019

Optimization Based Design and Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Microgrids

Stalder M, Optimization Based Design and Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Microgrids. LetsCluster, Lighthouse Summit in the heart of Europe: Smart Energy Generation - Management - Optimization, Smart Home / Building, Interface to the Smart Grid, Microgrids, Electric Grid of the Future, Sector Linking, Graz, Österreich, 25 - 27 März 2019

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2019

Planning and implementation of bankable microgrids

Stadler M, Nasle A. Planning and implementation of bankable microgrids. The Electricity Journal 2019. 32:24-29.

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Currently, many Microgrid projects remain financially uncertain and not bankable for institutional investors due to major challenges in existing planning and design methods that require multiple, complex steps and software tools.

Existing techniques treat every Microgrid project as a unique system, resulting in expensive, non-standardized approaches and implementations which cannot be compared. That is, it is not possible to correlate the results from different planning methods performed by different project developers and/or engineering companies.

This very expensive individual process cannot guarantee financial revenue streams, cannot be reliably audited, impedes pooling of multiple Microgrid projects into a financial asset class, nor does it allow for wide-spread and attractive Microgrid and Distributed Energy Resource projects deployment.

Thus, a reliable, integrated, and streamlined process is needed that guides the Microgrid developer and engineer through conceptual design, engineering, detailed electrical design, implementation, and operation in a standardized and data driven approach, creating reliable results and financial indicators that can be audited and repeated by investors and financers.

This article describes the steps and methods involved in creating bankable Microgrids by relying on an integrated Microgrid planning software approach that unifies proven technologies and tested planning methods, researched and developed by the United States National Laboratory System as well as the US Department of Energy, to reduce design times.


Other Publications | 2018

A flexible low cost PV/EV microgrid controller concept based on a Raspberry Pi

Stadler M. A flexible low cost PV/EV microgrid controller concept based on a Raspberry Pi. Working Paper, Center for Energy and innovative Technologies (CET) and Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH, June 2018.

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Other publication | 2018

Optimization of Heating, Electricits and Cooling Services in a Microgrid to Increase the Efficiency and Reliability

Lichtenegger K, Stadler M, Moser A, Zellinger M, Muschick D, Gälles M, Steinlechner M, Ayoub T, Gerardts B. Optimization of Heating, Electricits and Cooling Services in a Microgrid to Increase the Efficiency and Reliability. PoserGen Europe Wien.2018

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Technical Reports | 2018

The Green P - Nutzung von städtischen Verkehrsflächen für die Produktion von Biomasse

Lichtenegger K, Meixner K, Riepl R, Schipfer F, Zellinger M. The Green P - Nutzung von städtischen Verkehrsflächen für die Produktion von Biomasse. BMVIT, Schriftenreihe 25/2018.

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Conference contributions | 2018

The Green Parking Area – Utilization of urban parking areas for cultivation of algae

Zellinger M, Riepl R, Lichtenegger K, Meixner K, Drosg B, Enigl M, Theuretzbacher F, Schipfer F. The Green Parking Area – Utilization of urban parking areas for cultivation of algae. presentation at the WSED, Wels, Austria, 01. March 2018.

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The present study examines the possible use of urban and rural traffic areas for producing biomass. Many of those areas (for example, parking lots at cinemas and shopping centers) are only intensively used during certain times. Most of the time those areas remain empty.
At the same time a major problem for large-scale implementation of renewable energy is the massive land use resulting from limited energy density of solar radiation and, in case of biomass production, low efficiency for utilization of solar radiation by plants. Additionally, renewable energies are often criticized for the fact that they require areas, which could also be used for food and feed production.
Therefore, it is an attractive idea to use some of the traffic areas that are lost for the ecosystem anyway for biomass production. This approach is novel that no data have been available yet. The aim of this work was therefore to develop technical solutions, to quantify the technical potential for this type of biomass production and, subsequently, for energy supply, based on data on the area utilization, climatic data and known properties of microalgae.
The work deals with the question of the technical potential for this approach in Austria. This question is
answered by a survey of the area data in Austria, the elaboration of technical systems for a possible implementation, as well as by calculating the biomass potential, based on simulation results. The data have been collected, analyzed and evaluated in a comprehensive literature search. The potential analysis provides an overview of the distribution of traffic areas in Austria and the resulting biomass potential. Thus, a list of possible areas including biomass and energy quantities is available.


Conference contributions | 2018

The Green Parking Area – Utilization of urban parking areas for cultivation of algae

Zellinger M, Riepl R, Lichtenegger K, Meixner K, Drosg B, Enigl M, Theuretzbacher F, Schipfer F. The Green Parking Area – Utilization of urban parking areas for cultivation of algae. presentation at the WSED, Wels, Austria, 01. March 2018.

Details

The present study examines the possible use of urban and rural traffic areas for producing biomass. Many of those areas (for example, parking lots at cinemas and shopping centers) are only intensively used during certain times. Most of the time those areas remain empty.
At the same time a major problem for large-scale implementation of renewable energy is the massive land use resulting from limited energy density of solar radiation and, in case of biomass production, low efficiency for utilization of solar radiation by plants. Additionally, renewable energies are often criticized for the fact that they require areas, which could also be used for food and feed production.
Therefore, it is an attractive idea to use some of the traffic areas that are lost for the ecosystem anyway for biomass production. This approach is novel that no data have been available yet. The aim of this work was therefore to develop technical solutions, to quantify the technical potential for this type of biomass production and, subsequently, for energy supply, based on data on the area utilization, climatic data and known properties of microalgae.
The work deals with the question of the technical potential for this approach in Austria. This question is
answered by a survey of the area data in Austria, the elaboration of technical systems for a possible implementation, as well as by calculating the biomass potential, based on simulation results. The data have been collected, analyzed and evaluated in a comprehensive literature search. The potential analysis provides an overview of the distribution of traffic areas in Austria and the resulting biomass potential. Thus, a list of possible areas including biomass and energy quantities is available.


Conference contributions | 2017

Microgrids and the Regional Balance of Supply and Demand in the Electricity and Heating Sector

Stadler M, Mair C, Zellinger M, Lichtenegger K, Haslinger W, Temper M, Moser A, Carlon E, Muschick D, Gölles M. Microgrids and the Regional Balance of Supply and Demand in the Electricity and Heating Sector. 20. Österreichischer Biomassetag, Windischgarsten, 14. - 15. November 2017.

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Other publication | 2017

Microgrids und dezentrale Energieerzeugung

Stadler M.,Carlon E., Gölles M., Haslinger W., Lichtenegger K., Mair C., Moser A., Muschick D., Zellinger M. Microgrids und dezentrale Energieerzeugung. Wasser Cluster Lunz/See Österreich, 21. September 2017.

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Other publication | 2017

Mikro-Netze und die regionale Balance von Erzeugung und Verbrauch im Strom- und Wärmebereich

Stadler M, Mair C, Zellinger M, Lichtenegger K, Haslinger W, Temper M, Moser A, Carlon E, Muschick D, Gölles M. Mikro-Netze und die regionale Balance von Erzeugung und Verbrauch im Strom- und Wärmebereich. Impulsreferat 20. Österreichischer Biomassetag. Sektorkopplung & Flexibilisierung. Windischgarsten, Österreich. 14. November 2017.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2017

Startups in Kalifornien – Kollaborationsmodell im Energiebereich

Stadler M., Temper M., Haslinger W. Startups in Kalifornien – Kollaborationsmodell im Energiebereich. Impulsreferat Energy.Inc.Ubator, Start-ups als Katalysator in F&E für marktfähige Energiesystemlösungen. Co-Creation-Workshop. Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie. Österreich, 22. September 2017.

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Conference contributions | 2017

The Green Parking Area – Utilization of urban parking areas for cultivation of microalgae

Zellinger M, Riepl R, Lichtenegger K, Meixner K, Drosg B, Enigl M, Theuretzbacher F, Schipfer F. The Green Parking Area – Utilization of urban parking areas for cultivation of microalgae. Presentation at the Eco City Summit 2017, Melbourne, Australia, 17. June 2017.

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Conference contributions | 2017

The Green Parking Area – Utilization of urban parking areas for cultivation of microalgae

Zellinger M, Riepl R, Lichtenegger K, Meixner K, Drosg B, Enigl M, Theuretzbacher F, Schipfer F. The Green Parking Area – Utilization of urban parking areas for cultivation of microalgae. Presentation at the Eco City Summit 2017, Melbourne, Australia, 17. June 2017.

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Other Presentations | 2017

The Green Parking Space – Nutzung von städtischen Verkehrsflächen für die Produktion von Biomasse

Schipfer F, Lichtenegger K, Zellinger M et al. The Green Parking Space – Nutzung von städtischen Verkehrsflächen für die Produktion von Biomasse. Präsentation. First Vienna Vertical Farming Meetup 01.03.2017, Wien.

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Other Presentations | 2017

The Green Parking Space – Nutzung von städtischen Verkehrsflächen für die Produktion von Biomasse

Schipfer F, Lichtenegger K, Zellinger M et al. The Green Parking Space – Nutzung von städtischen Verkehrsflächen für die Produktion von Biomasse. Präsentation. First Vienna Vertical Farming Meetup 01.03.2017, Wien.

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Other publication | 2015

Optimization of Heating, Electricits and Cooling Services in a Microgrid to Increase the Efficiency and Reliability

Lichtenegger K, Stadler M, Moser A, Zellinger M, Muschick D, Gölles M, Steinlechner M, Ayoub T, Geradrdts B. Optimization of Heating, Electricits and Cooling Services in a Microgrid to Increase the Efficiency and Reliability.PoserGen Europe Wien.2018

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We briefly review the general concept and expected market potential of microgrids, then discuss the optimization challengesassociated with planning local cross-sectorial energy systems. A fair technology-neutral approach to this optimization task leads to a hard problem, which has to be tackled with advanced methods of mathematical optimization.The power of this approach is illustrated ina case study, concerning the replacement of heating systems in an alpine valley. In this case study we see both the potential for cost reduction and for the reduction of CO2emissions by an integrated planning approach.