Publications

Other Publications | 2023

Advanced Control ot the Generated Steam in a Municipal Waste Incineration Plant

Niederwieser H, Jäger F, Kirnbauer F, Gölles M. Advanced Control ot the Generated Steam in a Municipal Waste Incineration Plant. BEST Center Day. 28 June 2023

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In modern waste management, the energetic utilization of waste is an important key technology. On the one hand, it allows the waste to be disposed of in an environmentally friendly manner and, on the other hand, makes it possible to reduce the use of other controversial energy sources, such as nuclear fission or fossil fuels. However, the efficient and clean incineration of waste is a challenging task due to the strong inhomogeneity of the waste.

Peer reviewed papers | 2023

Automatic thermal model identification and distributed optimisation for load shifting in city quarters

Moser A, Kaisermayer V, Muschick D, Zemann C, Gölles M, Hofer A, Brandl D, Heimrath R, Mach T, Ribas Tugores C, Ramschak T. Automatic thermal model identification and distributed optimisation for load shifting in city quarters, International Journal of Sustainable Energy, 2023;42:1, 1063-1078, DOI: 10.1080/14786451.2023.2246079

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Buildings with floor heating or thermally activated building structures offer significant potential for shifting the thermal load and thus reduce peak demand for heating or cooling. This potential can be realised with the help of model predictive control (MPC) methods, provided that sufficiently descriptive mathematical models of the thermal characteristics of the individual thermal zones exist. Creating these by hand is infeasible for larger numbers of zones; instead, they must be identified automatically based on measurement data. In this paper an approach is presented that allows automatically identifying thermal models usable in MPC. The results show that the identified zone models are sufficiently accurate for the use in an MPC, with a mean average error below 1.5K for the prediction of the zone temperatures. The identified zone models are then used in a distributed optimisation scheme that coordinates the individual zones and buildings of a city quarter to best support an energy hub by flattening the overall load profile. In a preliminary simulation study carried out for buildings with floor heating, the operating costs for heating in a winter month were reduced by approximately 9%. Therefore, it can be concluded that the proposed approach has a clear economic benefit.

Other Publications | 2023

Automation and Control of Renewable Energy Systems

Gölles M. Automation and Control of Renewable Energy Systems. BEST Center Day. 28 June 2023

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The Area Automation and Control at BEST - Bioenergy and Sustainable Technologies GmbH focuses on the optimal operation of sustainable biorefinery and renewable energy systems, the optimal interaction of different technologies and systems and the highly automated operation management
by new digital services.

Peer reviewed papers | 2023

Control-oriented modeling of a LiBr/H2O absorption heat pumping device and experimental validation

Staudt S, Unterberger V, Gölles M, Wernhart M, Rieberer R, Horn M. Control-oriented modeling of a LiBr/H2O absorption heat pumping device and experimental validation. Journal of Process Control. 2023 Aug;128:103024. doi: 10.1016/j.jprocont.2023.103024

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Absorption heat pumping devices (AHPDs, comprising absorption heat pumps and chillers) are devices that use thermal energy instead of electricity to generate heating and cooling, thereby facilitating the use of waste heat and renewable energy sources such as solar or geothermal energy. Despite this benefit, widespread use of AHPDs is still limited. One reason for this is partly unsatisfactory control performance under varying operating conditions, which can result in poor modulation and part load capability. A promising approach to tackle this issue is using dynamic, model-based control strategies, whose effectiveness, however, strongly depend on the model being used. This paper therefore focuses on the derivation of a viable dynamic model to be used for such model-based control strategies for AHPDs such as state feedback or model-predictive control. The derived model is experimentally validated, showing good modeling accuracy. Its modeling accuracy is also compared to alternative model versions, that contain other heat transfer correlations, as a benchmark. Although the derived model is mathematically simple, it does have the structure of a nonlinear differential–algebraic system of equations. To obtain an even simpler model structure, linearization at an operating point is discussed to derive a model in linear state space representation. The experimental validation shows that the linear model does have slightly worse steady-state accuracy, but that the dynamic accuracy seems to be almost unaffected by the linearization. The presented new modeling approach is considered suitable to be used as a basis for the design of advanced, model-based control strategies, ultimately aiming to improve the modulation and part load capability of AHPDs.

Other publication | 2023

Distributed Optimization Methods for Energy Management Systems

Kaisermayer V. Distributed Optimization Methods for Energy Management Systems. 2023.

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Efficient control of energy systems is an important factor in achieving the CO2-emission goals. District heating (DH) networks are an especially relevant example of such energy systems. State-of-the-art control of small and medium-sized DH networks, however, still mainly relies on simple rule-based control concepts. Handling future challenges such as varying prices and intermittent renewable production is difficult to achieve with such control concepts. Optimization-based energy management systems (EMS) are a promising high-level control approach for the efficient operation of DH networks and complex energy systems in general. An especially interesting challenge arises when DH networks grow, as often the opportunity arises to interconnect them. However, if they operated by different owners, the control task becomes challenging, especially for optimization-based EMS. This is because, in the overall objective function, the cost and revenue for any exchange of energy would cancel out. This thesis presents a solution to this challenge. The main focus of this thesis is on the application of distributed optimization methods for EMS in the context of coupled energy systems, operated by multiple owners, especially interconnected DH networks. The presented methods and ideas are evaluated on a practical application of three DH networks in Austria.  

Reports | 2023

District Heating and Cooling Networks in an Integrated Energy System Context (Guidebook)

Final Report of the IEA DHC Annex TS3

Böhm H, Cronbach D, Muschick D, Ianakiev A, Jentsch A, Cadenbach A, Kranzl L, Reuter S, Rossi J, Schmidt RR, Sorknaes P, Svensson IL, Trier D, Tunzi M, Widl E. IEA DHC Annex TS3 Guidebook, District Heating and Cooling in an Integrated Energy System Context, 2023.

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Annex TS3: Hybrid Energy Networks

The aim of the IEA DHC Annex TS3 „hybrid energy networks" is to promote opportunities and to overcome challenges for district heating and cooling (DHC) networks in an integrated energy system context, focusing on the coupling to the electricity and the gas grid.

 

Other Publications | 2023

Efficiency increase of biomass combustion systems by a modular CO-lambda optimization: method and results from long-term verification

Zemann C, Max A, Gölles M, Horn M. Efficiency increase of biomass combustion systems by a modular CO-lambda optimization: method and results from long-term verification. 7. Mitteleuropäische Biomassekonferenz: CEBC 2023. 19. Jan 2023. Oral presentation.

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Introduction and motivation
A key objective for the operation of biomass boilers is to achieve the highest possible efficiency while emitting the lowest possible pollutant emissions. In order to automate this task, CO-lambda optimization methods have been proposed in literature that ensure that the biomass boiler is operated at the lowest excess air ratio at which no relevant pollutant emissions occur, maximizing efficiency as a result. Since this optimal excess air ratio depends on various external factors, such as fuel properties, CO-lambda optimization methods continuously incorporate new measurements of the excess air ratio and the carbon monoxide content of the flue gas and estimate a new optimal excess air ratio during operation.
While achieving promising results in lab-scale tests, none of the CO-lambda optimization methods presented in literature has yet been able to gain practical acceptance. Either they are not robust enough and provide inaccurate estimates of the optimal excess air ratio or they are too slow and do not allow the optimal excess air ratio to be tracked sufficiently quickly. With the goal of providing a method that is fit for practical application, this publication presents a new modular approach for CO-lambda optimization that determines the optimal excess air ratio robustly and quickly, i.e. in real time.


Method
The new approach for CO-lambda optimization approximates the correlation between the excess air ratio and the carbon monoxide content of the flue gas, the CO-lambda characteristic, with a continuous, algebraic, non-linear model function. For this purpose, it uses a recursive-least-squares algorithm to continuously identify the model function’s parameters that lead to the optimal fit with the measured data, which are the excess air ratio and carbon monoxide content of the flue gas. From these model parameters, the optimal excess air ratio is calculated and defined as a desired value for the biomass boiler’s existing controller. This existing controller then ensures, that the biomass boiler is operated with this desired optimal excess air ratio, thus, maximizing efficiency and decreasing pollutant emissions. As a result, this new approach for CO-lambda optimization is entirely modular and can be applied to any biomass boiler with an existing control strategy capable of accurately adjusting the excess air ratio. For the measurement of the carbon monoxide content of the flue gas, a separate sensor has to be used. For this study the commercially available and proven in-situ exhaust gas sensor “KS1D” provided by the company LAMTEC has been used.


Long-term verification
The new approach for CO-lambda optimization was tested and validated at a biomass boiler with a nominal capacity of 2.5 MW that supplies a local heating network and combusts wood chips with a water content ranging from 30 w.t.% to 50 w.t.%. The long-term validation took place over an entire heating period, i.e. 5 months from November to March, during which the biomass boiler was operated alternately with the new approach for CO-lambda optimization and the standard control strategy, which means a constant desired residual oxygen content. In total the new approach for CO-lambda optimization was active for 1155 operating hours while the standard control strategy was active for 1310 operating hours. Compared to the standard control strategy, the new approach for CO-lambda optimization increased the biomass boiler’s efficiency by 3.8%, decreased total dust emissions by 19.5% and reduced carbon monoxide emissions on average (median) by 200 mg/m³. This demonstrates that the new approach for CO-lambda optimization is not only robust enough to run over a long period of time, it also leads to significant improvements in the biomass boiler’s operation. In addition, following these results, this new approach for CO-lambda optimization has also successfully been implemented and demonstrated at another biomass boiler with a nominal capacity of 1 MW where it has already been active for several months. This contribution presents the new approach to CO-lambda optimization in detail and discusses its technological and economic impact.

Peer reviewed papers | 2023

Fault detective: Automatic fault-detection for solar thermal systems based on artificial intelligence

Feierl L, Unterberger V, Rossi C, Gerardts B, Gaetani M. Fault detective: Automatic fault-detection for solar thermal systems based on artificial intelligence. Solar Energy Advances 2023;3:100033. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seja.2023.100033.

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Fault-Detection (FD) is essential to ensure the performance of solar thermal systems. However, manually analyzing the system can be time-consuming, error-prone, and requires extensive domain knowledge. On the other hand, existing FD algorithms are often too complicated to set up, limited to specific system layouts, or have only limited fault coverage. Hence, a new FD algorithm called Fault-Detective is presented in this paper, which is purely data-driven and can be applied to a wide range of system layouts with minimal configuration effort. It automatically identifies correlated sensors and models their behavior using Random-Forest-Regression. Faults are then detected by comparing predicted and measured values.

The algorithm is tested using data from three large-scale solar thermal systems to evaluate its applicability and performance. The results are compared to manual fault detection performed by a domain expert. The evaluation shows that Fault-Detective can successfully identify correlated sensors and model their behavior well, resulting in coefficient-of-determination scores between R²=0.91 and R²=1.00. In addition, all faults detected by the domain experts were correctly spotted by Fault-Detective. The algorithm even identified some faults that the experts missed. However, the use of Fault-Detective is limited by the low precision score of 30% when monitoring temperature sensors. The reason for this is a high number of false alarms raised due to anomalies (e.g., consecutive days with bad weather) instead of faults. Nevertheless, the algorithm shows promising results for monitoring the thermal power of the systems, with an average precision score of 91%.

Other Publications | 2023

FlowBattMonitor - Modellgestützte Überwachung von erneuerbaren Flow Batterien (Poster)

Nigitz T, Spirk S, Poms U, Wickenhauser D. FlowBattMonitor - Modellgestützte Überwachung von erneuerbaren Flow Batterien. Poster. 2023.

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Reports | 2023

Guidebook for the Digitalisation of District Heating: Transforming Heat Networks for a Sustainable Future

Final Report of DHC Annex TS4

Schmidt, Dietrich (ed.) et al. (2023). Guidebook for the Digitalisation of District Heating: Transforming Heat Networks for a Sustainable Future, Final Report of DHC Annex TS4. AGFW Project Company, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

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Conference presentations and posters | 2023

IEA Cross TCP Workshop: Towards a flexible, cross sectoral energy supply

Gölles M, Schubert T, Lechner M, Mäki E, Kuba K, Leusbrock I, Unterberger V, Schmidt D. IEA Cross TCP Workshop: Towards a flexible, cross sectoral energy supply.7th Central European Biomass Conference CEBC 2023. 18. January 2023. Graz. Oral Presentation.

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A sustainable energy supply can only be achieved by a flexible, cross-sectoral energy system utilizing the specific advantages of the various renewable technologies. In this workshop possible roles of different technologies will be discussed based on a previous discussion of the users’ needs among the different sectors. In this a special focus should be given on the flexibility provision via the heating sector. By bringing together different users, representing municipal and industrial energy supply, and technological experts from different IEA Technology Collaboration Programmes (TCP) the workshop should support a holistic discussion.

List of presentations: 

  • Wien Energie‘s vision of a sustainable energy and ressource supply of Vienna, Teresa Schubert, Wien Energie, Austria
  • Digitalization of energy management systems – optimization of internal energy use as an industrial company, Maria Lechner, INNIO Jenbacher, Austria
  • Flexible Bioenergy and System Integration, Elina Mäki, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland Task Leader – IEA Bioenergy Task 44 Flexible Bioenergy and System Integration
  • Use Case: Syngas platform Vienna for utilization of biogenic residues, Matthias Kuba, BEST – Bioenergy and Sustainable Technologies, Austria
  • Transformation of District Heating and Cooling Systems towards high share of renewables, Ingo Leusbrock, AEE INTEC, Austria – Lead of Austrian delegation – IEA DHC Annex TS5 Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into existing District Heating and Cooling Systems
  • Opportunities offered by long-term heat storages and large-scale solar thermal systems, Viktor Unterberger, BEST – Bioenergy and Sustainable Technologies, Austria Task Manager – IEA SHC Task 68 Efficient Solar District Heating Systems
  • Possibilities through digitalization on the example of District Heating and Cooling, Dietrich Schmidt, Fraunhofer Institute for Energy Economics and Energy System Technology IEE, Germany – Operating Agent – IEA DHC Annex TS4 Digitalisation of District Heating and Cooling

List of contributing IEA Tasks:

Other Publications | 2023

Increased flexibility of a fixed-bed biomass gasifier through advanced control

Hollenstein C, Martini S, Gölles M, Felsberger W, Horn M. Increased flexibility of a fixed-bed biomass gasifier through advanced control. BEST Center Day. 28 June 2023

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Conference presentations and posters | 2023

Increasing the flexibility of a fixed-bed biomass gasifier through model-based control strategies: method and practical verification

Hollenstein C, Zemann C, Martini S, Gölles M, Felsberger W, Horn M. Increasing the flexibility of a fixed-bed biomass gasifier through model-based control strategies: method and practical verification. 7. Mitteleuropäische Biomassekonferenz: CEBC 2023. 20. Jan 2023. Oral presentation.

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Future hybrid energy systems require flexible technologies for compensating the volatile nature of most renewable energies. As such, fixed-bed biomass gasifiers are especially relevant as they allow a flexible production of heat, electricity and in a broader sense bio-based products (e.g. biochar). Thus, flexible fixed-bed biomass gasifiers will continuously become more relevant for a sustainable and highly flexible energy and resource system (bioeconomy).

 

However, due to their current economic dependency on specific feed in tariffs for the produced electricity, they are almost always operated at nominal load, to maximize the electricity production. Thus, their potential for flexibility has not been revealed up to now. Consequently, the currently applied control strategies are typically designed with the focus on steady-state operation. Any operation differing from nominal load typically requires manual interventions of the plant operators to avoid lower efficiencies or operational difficulties. Thus, currently applied control strategies do not allow a fully-automatic and flexible operation of the gasifiers.

 

To unleash the full potential of the gasifiers’ flexibility, new and more advanced control strategies able to handle varying operating conditions automatically are required. For this reason, this contribution aims for the development of a model-based control strategy, since it allows to explicitly consider all the correlations between the different process variables, and an efficient adaptation of the control strategy to different plants. The development was carried out on the basis of a representative industrial small-scale fixed-bed biomass gasifier operated as combined heat and power plant (CHP) with a nominal capacity of 300 kWth and 150 kWel. In this contribution we present the developed method as well as the practical verification of the model-based controller for the industrial small-scale fixed-bed biomass gasification plant.

 

The practical verification revealed a significant potential for flexibility increase by the new model-based control strategy in comparison to state-of-the-art control strategies. For example, the new controller performs a step-wise load change from 150 kWel to 100 kWel (-33%) within less than 2 min without affecting the gasification performance. The new control leads to a much more homogeneous gasification, in particular during partial load operation, and reduces the fluctuation margin of relevant process parameters to less than 1%. This controlled stabilization and homogenization of the gasification at different operating conditions is also a prerequisite for further future flexibilization measures, e.g. the extension of the feedstock variety (fuel flexibility) or increasing product flexibility.

 

Due to the modular and model-based design, the new control strategy can also be implemented on other fixed-bed gasifiers of the same type without requiring any structural modifications, by solely adjusting the model parameters appropriately. Furthermore, the new control strategy makes only use of sensors and actuators typically already available in state-of-the-art fixed-bed gasification systems. In conclusion, the model-based control strategy to be presented states a very important contribution towards flexible fixed-bed biomass gasification systems.

 

Conference presentations and posters | 2023

Intelligent Building Control with User Feedback in the Loop

Kaisermayer V, Muschick D, Gölles M, Schweiger G, Schwengler T, Mörth M, Heimrath R, Mach T, Herzlieb M, Horn M. Intelligent Building Control with User Feedback in the Loop. 9th International Conference on Smart Energy Systems. Kopenhagen, Denmark, 12. September 2023. Oral Presentation.

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Buildings account for 30% of the globally consumed final energy and 19% of the indirect emissions, i.e., from the production of electricity and heat. Air-conditioned office buildings have an especially high energy footprint. Retrofitting buildings with predictive control strategies can reduce their energy demand and increase thermal comfort by considering future weather conditions. One challenge lies in the required infrastructure, i.e., sensors and actuators. Another challenge is about satisfying the comfort requirements of the users, getting their feedback and reacting to it. We propose a predictive control strategy, where an optimization-based energy management system (EMS) controls the thermal zones of such office buildings. The approach uses a mathematical model of the building within an optimization problem to predict and shift thermal demand. The individual thermal zones are modelled using a grey-box approach, where the simultaneous state and parameter estimation is handled by an unscented Kalman filter (UKF). This minimizes the needed effort for deployment of the system, as the parameters are learned automatically from historical measurement data. The objective function ensures the users’ comfort based on a comfort model, penalizes unwanted behaviour such as frequent valve position changes, and minimizes the costs for heating and cooling supply. Since the offices are typically shared by multiple users, the internal comfort model is calibrated based on their feedback. Each feedback is viewed as a measurement from the internal comfort model, and an UKF updates the parameters of the model, thus lowering or increasing the temperature setpoint of the zone controller in a robust manner. As a case study, an office building at the “Innovation District Inffeld” is considered. The proposed predictive control strategy, together with the user feedback, is implemented. A central information and communication technology (ICT) handles all communication with the building automation system. We developed a simple web-based feedback system with a five-point Likert scale for user feedback integration. The presented ideas are evaluated based on both a preliminary simulation study and potential evaluation using the building modelling software IDA ICE, and a real-world implementation. A key requirement was to limit the number of new sensors and actuators, thus focusing on how much can be achieved with a retrofit measure with minimal hardware, but intelligent software. The presentation will give, an overview of the developed methods and first results of the real implementation will be given.

Other Publications | 2023

Long-term validation of a new modular approach for CO-Lambda-optimization

Nigitz T, Hammer F, Gölles M, Horn M.

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Peer reviewed papers | 2023

MIMO state feedback control for redundantly-actuated LiBr/H O absorption heat pumping devices and experimental validation

Staudt S, Unterberger V, Muschick D, Gölles M, Horn M, Wernhart M, Rieberer R. MIMO state feedback control for redundantly-actuated LiBr/H2O absorption heat pumping devices and experimental validation. Control Engineering Practice.2023:140.105661. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conengprac.2023.105661

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Absorption heat pumping devices (AHPDs, comprising absorption heat pumps and chillers) use mainly thermal energy instead of electricity as the driving energy to provide resource-efficient heating and cooling when using waste heat or renewable heat sources. Despite this benefit, AHPDs are still not a very common technology due to their complexity. However, better modulation and part-load capability, which can be achieved through advanced control strategies, can simplify the use of AHPDs and help to better integrate them into complex energy systems. Therefore, this paper presents a new, dynamic model-based control approach for single-stage AHPDs that can extend an AHPD’s operating range by employing multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) control methods. The control approach can be used for different AHPD applications and thus control configurations, i.e., different combinations of manipulated and controlled variables, and can also be used for redundantly-actuated configurations with more manipulated than controlled variables. It consists of an observer for the state variables and unknown disturbances, a state feedback controller and, in case of redundantly-actuated configurations, a dynamic control allocation algorithm. The proposed control approach is experimentally validated with a representative AHPD for two different control configurations and compared to two benchmark control approaches – single-input-single-output (SISO) PI control representing the state-of-the-art, and model-predictive control (MPC) as an alternative advanced control concept. The experimental validation shows that the two MIMO control approaches (the proposed state feedback and the MPC approach) allow for a wider operating range and hence better part load capability compared to the SISO PI control approach. While MPC generally results in a comparably high computational effort due to the necessity of continuously solving an optimization problem, the proposed state feedback control approach is mathematically simple enough to be implemented on a conventional programmable logic controller. It is therefore considered a promising new control approach for AHPDs with the ability to extend their operating range and improve their part load capability, which in turn facilitates their implementation and thus the use of sustainable heat sources in heating and cooling systems.

Other Publications | 2023

Model-based Building Energy Management System with User Feedback in the Loop

Kaisermayer V, Muschick D, Gölles M, Horn M. Model-based Building Energy Management System with User Feedback in the Loop. BEST Center Day. 28 June 2023

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Optimization-based energy management systems (EMS) are a high-level control approach for energy systems like district heating networks. A descriptive model and objective function are required to solve an optimization problem and apply the resulting schedule in a receding horizon fashion. EMS for buildings require a simplified model of each thermal zone, and the objective function includes costs for heating and cooling, virtual costs, and a comfort model. Feedback from users is necessary since thermal comfort varies among individuals.

Other Publications | 2023

Modelling and control of a small-scale fixed-bed biomass gasification system

Hollenstein C. Modelling and control of a small-scale fixed-bed biomass gasification system. 2023.

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Other Publications | 2023

Operational optimization and error detection in biomass boilers by model based monitoring: methods and practice

Zemann C, Niederwieser H, Gölles M. Operational optimization and error detection in biomass boilers by model based monitoring: methods and practice. 7. Mitteleuropäische Biomassekonferenz: CEBC 2023. 20. Jan 2023. Oral presentation.

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One of the main tasks for operators of medium- and large-scale biomass boilers is the continuous operational monitoring of these plants in order to assess their performance, detect errors and identify possibilities for operational optimization. However, due to the high complexity of this task, errors are frequently detected too late or not at all, which can lead to even more costly secondary errors. In addition, possibilities for optimization remain unused in many existing plants, resulting in unnecessary pollutant emissions and low efficiencies.
To assist operators in performing this task and to achieve a high level of automation, methods for the automated, model-based monitoring of such plants have been focus of recent research activities. In this contribution, we will discuss the numerous possibilities provided by the application of such methods in a practical context. For this purpose, we present selected results from previous activities, demonstrating how methods for model-based monitoring were applied at combustion plants and used to enable automated error detection and support operational optimization.


Exemplary result 1: We developed a soft-sensor which accurately estimates the non-measurable internal state of heat exchangers and implemented it at a large-scale combustion plant with a nominal capacity of 38.2 MW. This soft-sensor uses a dynamic mathematical model of the heat exchanger in combination with measured data to determine a new estimate for the heat exchanger’s internal state every second. Based on this estimate, the soft-sensor accurately detects fouling and determines the non-measurable flue gas mass flow in real time. The estimated flue gas mass flow was used in a model-based control strategy which resulted in significant improvements of the combustion plant’s operational behaviour and load modulation capabilities. These results are discussed in this contribution.


Exemplary result 2: We developed a method for the real-time estimation of non-measurable fuel properties, i.e. chemical composition, bulk density, lower heating value, in biomass boilers. These estimates were subsequently used in a model-based control strategy and enabled the improvement of the biomass boiler’s fuel flexibility. Results of this estimator achieved for different biomass fuels, e.g. poplar wood chips, corncob grits and standard wood pellets, are discussed in this contribution.
On the basis of these selected results, it will be examined which possibilities arise from the use of methods for model-based monitoring in biomass boilers and also how these results can be extended to other technologies such as biomass gasifiers.

Conference presentations and posters | 2023

Overview on flexible bioenergy options and implementation

Thrän D, Mäki E, Lange N, Hennig C, Schmieder U, Schildhauer T, Kiel J, Kroon P, Schipfer F, Philbrook A, Andersson K, Higa C, Gölles M. Overview on flexible bioenergy options and implementation. 7. Mitteleuropäische Biomassekonferenz: CEBC 2023. 20. Jan 2023. Oral presentation.

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Conference presentations and posters | 2023

Predictive control of biomass and biogas-based CHPs at the intersection between the electricity grid and heating networks – Improving electricity market participation through optimization and demand side management

Muschick D, Kaisermayer V, Moser A, Gölles M. Predictive control of biomass and biogas-based CHPs at the intersection between the electricity grid and heating networks – Improving electricity market participation through optimization and demand side management. 7. Mitteleuropäische Biomassekonferenz: CEBC 2023. 20. Jan 2023. Oral presentation.

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Other Publications | 2023

Smart Control of Coupled District Heating Networks

Kaisermayer V, Muschick D, Gölles M, Horn M. Smart Control for Couled District Heating Networks. BEST Center Day. 28 June 2023

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District heating (DH) networks have the potential for intelligent integration and combination of renewable energy sources, waste heat, thermal energy storage, heat consumers, and coupling with
other sectors. For growing networks in close geographical proximity, often the possibility arises to couple them using bidirectional heat exchangers, possibly unlocking synergies and reducing costs for the consumers. Each DH network may consist of producers, consumers and thermal energy storage (TES) devices. Often, each of the coupled DH networks will be already controlled via low-level controllers. Hence, a high-level control approach is needed, that coordinates the heat exchange between the
networks and takes renewable energy sources and the TES capacities in each network into account. These supervisory controllers are generally referred to as energy management systems (EMS).

Other papers | 2022

A control strategy for optimising the operational behaviour of biomass boilers

Zemann C. A control strategy for optimising the operational behaviour of biomass boilers. 2022. 225 S.

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Biomassefeuerungen spielen eine Schlüsselrolle in der Energiewende hin zu einem vollständig erneuerbaren Energiesystem. Allerdings müssen sie sich zukünftigen Herausforderungen stellen, um weiterhin relevant zu bleiben. Einerseits müssen Biomassefeuerungen mit dem höchstmöglichen Wirkungsgrad arbeiten, um wirtschaftlich rentabel zu bleiben während sie gleichzeitig eine hohe Lastmodulationsfähigkeit aufweisen müssen, um für eine breitere Palette von Anwendungen eingesetzt werden zu können. Andererseits müssen Biomassefeuerungen immer strengere Grenzwerte für Schadstoffemissionen einhalten und gleichzeitig in der Lage sein, neue und alternative Biomassebrennstoffe mit geringerer Qualität zu verbrennen.

In dieser Arbeit wird eine modellbasierte Regelungsstrategie entwickelt, die es Biomassefeuerungen ermöglicht, all diese Herausforderungen zu meistern. Diese Regelungsstrategie besteht aus drei Teilen, einer Verbrennungsregelung, einem Zustands- und Parameterschätzer und einer Methode zur CO-lambda-Optimierung. Alle drei Teile werden in dieser Arbeit hergeleitet und im Detail diskutiert, insbesondere im Hinblick auf ihre Implementierung an realen Biomassefeuerungen. Darüber hinaus werden alle drei Teile der modellbasierten Regelungsstrategie durch Simulationsstudien sowie durch eine Implementierung in realen Biomassefeuerungen verifiziert.

Als Grundlage für die modellbasierte Regelungsstrategie wird ein mathematisches Modell abgeleitet, welches das dynamische Verhalten der Prozesse in der Biomassefeuerungen einschließlich des Einflusses der Brennstoffeigenschaften beschreibt. Die berücksichtigten Brennstoffeigenschaften sind die Schüttdichte und die chemische Zusammensetzung einschließlich des Wasser- und Aschegehalts sowie der untere Heizwert.

Die Verbrennungsregelung nutz die Stellglieder der Biomassefeuerung um dessen stabilen Betrieb zu gewährleisten und schnelle Laständerungen zu ermöglichen. Diese modellbasierte Regelstrategie berücksichtigt durch ihre Formulierung, die auf dem oben genannten mathematischen Modell basiert, explizit alle relevanten Brennstoffeigenschaften. Dadurch reagiert sie gezielt auf Änderungen dieser Brennstoffeigenschaften und kompensiert direkt deren Einfluss auf den Betrieb der Biomassefeuerung. Gleichzeitig weist sie eine einfache Struktur auf und ist daher leicht zu implementieren und zu warten. Diese modellbasierte Verbrennungsregelung wird sowohl in Simulationsstudien als auch durch Experimente nach einer Implementierung an einer realen Biomassefeuerung verifiziert.

Es wird ein kombinierter Zustands- und Parameterschätzer entwickelt, der gleichzeitig die Brennstoffeigenschaften, die anschließend von der Verbrennungsregelung verwendet werden, und die Zustandsgrößen der Biomassefeuerungen in Echtzeit schätzt. Er basiert auf einem erweiterten Kalman-Filter, der das in dieser Arbeit vorgestellte mathematische Modell verwendet. Diese Methode wird für verschiedene Brennstoffeigenschaften sowohl in Simulationsstudien als auch durch Messdaten aus realen Biomassefeuerungen verifiziert. Die Ergebnisse dieser Verifikation zeigen, dass diese Methode in der Lage ist, die Brennstoffeigenschaften und Zustandsgrößen auch bei Last- oder Brennstoffwechseln genau zu bestimmen.

Um einen Betrieb der Biomassefeuerung mit möglichst hohem Wirkungsgrad und möglichst geringen Schadstoffemissionen zu gewährleisten, wird eine Methode zur CO-lambda-Optimierung entwickelt. Diese Methode verwendet einen erweiterten Kalman-Filter in Kombination mit Messdaten des Sauerstoffgehalts und des CO-Gehalts des Rauchgases zur Bestimmung eines optimalen Luftüberschussverhältnisses für den aktuellen Zustand der Biomassefeuerung. Diese Methode wird an einer realen Biomassefeuerung in einer Langzeitvalidierung über mehrere Monate verifiziert und validiert. Während dieser Langzeitvalidierung führte die Anwendung dieser Methode zur CO-lambda-Optimierung zu einer Wirkungsgradsteigerung von 3,8 %, einer Reduktion der CO-Emissionen um durchschnittlich 200 mg/m³ sowie einer Verringerung der Gesamtstaubemissionen um durchschnittlich 19 %.

Zusammenfassend ermöglicht die in dieser Arbeit vorgestellte modellbasierte Regelungsstrategie es, Biomassefeuerungen mit den geringstmöglichen Schadstoffemissionen und dem höchstmöglichen Wirkungsgrad zu betreiben und dabei ein hohes Maß an Brennstoffflexibilität und Lastmodulationsfähigkeit zu erreichen. Darüber hinaus weist die Regelungsstrategie eine geringe Komplexität auf und ist leicht in realen Biomassefeuerungen zu implementieren und zu warten. Dies ermöglicht den breiten Einsatz dieser Regelungsstrategie an bestehenden und zukünftigen Biomassefeuerungen. Dies unterstützt die weitere Verbreitung von Biomassefeuerungen im Energiesystem, was zur Reduzierung der CO2e-Emissionen beiträgt und auch die verstärkte Nutzung anderer, volatiler erneuerbarer Technologien, wie z.B. solarthermischer Anlagen, ermöglicht.

Peer reviewed papers | 2022

A multi-layer model of stratified thermal storage for MILP-based energy management systems

Muschick D, Zlabinger S, Moser A, Lichtenegger K, Gölles M. A multi-layer model of stratified thermal storage for MILP-based energy management systems. Applied Energy. 2022 May 15;315.118890. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2022.118890

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Both the planning and operation of complex, multi-energy systems increasingly rely on optimization. This optimization requires the use of mathematical models of the system components. The model most often used to describe thermal storage, and especially in the common mixed-integer linear program (MILP) formulation, is a simple integrator model with a linear loss term. This simple model has multiple inherent drawbacks since it cannot be applied to represent the temperature distribution inside of the storage unit. In this article, we present a novel approach based on multiple layers of variable size but fixed temperature. The model is still linear, but can be used to describe the most relevant physical phenomena: heat losses, axial heat transport, and, at least qualitatively, axial heat conduction. As an additional benefit, this model makes it possible to clearly distinguish between heat available at different temperatures and thus suitable for different applications, e.g., space heating or domestic hot water. This comes at the cost of additional binary decision variables used to model the resulting hybrid linear dynamics, requiring the use of state-of-the-art MILP solvers to solve the resulting optimization problems. The advantages of the more detailed model are demonstrated by validating it against a standard model based on partial differential equations and by showing more realistic results for a simple energy optimization problem.

Other papers | 2022

Application of Optimization-based Energy Management Systems for Interconnected District Heating Networks

Kaisermayer V, Muschick D, Gölles M, Rosegger W, Binder J, Kelz J. Application of Optimization-based Energy Management Systems for Interconnected District Heating Networks. 22. Styrian Workshop on Automatic Control. 6 Sep. 2022. Leitring/Wagna, Österreich.

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Conference presentations and posters | 2022

Automatic Thermal Model Identification and Distributed Optimisation for Load Shifting in City Quarters

Moser A, Kaisermayer V, Muschick D, Zemann C, Gölles M, Hofer A, Brandl D, Heimrath R, Mach T, Tugores C R, Ramschak, T. Automatic Thermal Model Identification and Distributed Optimisation for Load Shifting in City Quarters. 2nd International Sustainable Energy Conference: ISEC 2022. Graz, 07/04/2022. Oral presentation.

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Modern buildings with floor heating or thermally activated building structures (TABS) offer a significant potential for shifting the thermal load and thus reduce peak demand for heating or cooling. This potential can be realized with the help of model predictive control (MPC) methods, provided that sufficiently descriptive mathematical models describing the thermal characteristics of the individual thermal zones exist. Creating these by hand or from more detailed simulation models is infeasible for large numbers of zones; instead, they must be identified automatically based on measurement data. We present an approach using only open source tools based on the programming language Julia that allows to robustly identify simple thermal models for heating and cooling usable in MPC optimization. The resulting models are used in a distributed optimization scheme that co-ordinates the individual zones and buildings of a city quarter in order to best support an energy hub.

Other papers | 2022

Automatic thermal model identification and distributed optimization for load shifting in city quarters

Moser AGC, Kaisermayer V, Muschick D, Gölles M, Hofer A, Brandl D, Heimrath R, Mach T, Ribas Tugores C, Ramschak T. Automatic thermal model identification and distributed optimization for load shifting in city quarters. in Conference Proceedings - 2nd International Sustainable Energy Conference. 2022. S. 302-303 https://doi.org/10.32638/isec2022

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Modern buildings with floor heating or thermally activated building structures (TABS) offer a significant
potential for shifting the thermal load and thus reduce peak demand for heating or cooling. This potential can be realized with the help of model predictive control (MPC) methods, provided that sufficiently descriptive mathematical models describing the thermal characteristics of the individual thermal zones exist. Creating these by hand or from more detailed simulation models is infeasible for large numbers of zones; instead, they must be identified automatically based on measurement data. We present an approach using only open source tools based on the programming language Julia that allows to robustly identify simple thermal models for heating and cooling usable in MPC optimization. The resulting models are used in a distributed optimization scheme that co-ordinates the individual zones and buildings of a city quarter in order to best support an energy hub.

Other Publications | 2022

ÖKO-OPT-AKTIV: Optimiertes Regelungs- und Betriebsverhalten thermisch aktivierter Gebäude zukünftiger Stadtquartiere

Abschlussworkshop

Muschick D, Kaisermayer V. ÖKO-OPT-AKTIV - Optimiertes Regelungs- und Betriebsverhalten thermisch aktivierter Gebäude zukünftiger Stadtquartiere. Präsentation beim Abschlussworkshop in Graz, 16.09.2022.

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Peer reviewed papers | 2022

Expert survey and classification of tools for modeling and simulating hybrid energy networks

Widl E, Cronbach D, Sorknæs P, Fitó J, Muschick D, Repetto M, Ramousse J, Ianakiev A. Expert survey and classification of tools for modeling and simulating hybrid energy networks. Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks. December 2022.32:100913.

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Sector coupling is expected to play a key role in the decarbonization of the energy system by enabling the integration of decentralized renewable energy sources and unlocking hitherto unused synergies between generation, storage and consumption. Within this context, a transition towards hybrid energy networks (HENs), which couple power, heating/cooling and gas grids, is a necessary requirement to implement sector coupling on a large scale. However, this transition poses practical challenges, because the traditional domain-specific approaches struggle to cover all aspects of HENs. Methods and tools for conceptualization, system planning and design as well as system operation support exist for all involved domains, but their adaption or extension beyond the domain they were originally intended for is still a matter of research and development. Therefore, this work presents innovative tools for modeling and simulating HENs. A categorization of these tools is performed based on a clustering of their most relevant features. It is shown that this categorization has a strong correlation with the results of an independently carried out expert review of potential application areas. This good agreement is a strong indicator that the proposed classification categories can successfully capture and characterize the most important features of tools for HENs. Furthermore, it allows to provide a guideline for early adopters to understand which tools and methods best fit the requirements of their specific applications.

Conference presentations and posters | 2022

FAULT DETECTIVE: FAULT DETECTION FOR SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS

Feierl L, Bolognesi T, Unterberger V, Geatani M, Gerardts B. FAULT DETECTIVE: FAULT DETECTION FOR SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS. ISEC 2022. 05 - 07. April 2022, Graz. Poster presentation.

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Reports | 2022

IEA Bioenergy Task 44: Flexible Bioenergie und Systemintegration (Arbeitsperiode 2019 - 2021)

Gölles M, Schipfer F. IEA Bioenergy Task 44: Flexible Bioenergie und Systemintegration (Arbeitsperiode 2019 - 2021). IEA Task Bioenergy 44. BMK. Schriftenreihe 49/2023. Deutsch, 40 Seiten.

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Ziel des Tasks ist es, Bioenergielösungen als flexible Ressource in einem dekarbonisierten Energiesystem herauszuarbeiten. Dabei sollen Typen, Qualität und Status von flexibler Bioenergie erhoben sowie Barrieren und Entwicklungsbedarf im Gesamtsystemkontext (Strom-, Wärme- und Transportsektor) identifiziert werden.

Conference presentations and posters | 2022

IEA SHC Task 68: Efficient Solar District Heating Systems

Unterberger V, Berberich M, Putz S, Byström J, Gölles M. IEA SHC Task 68: Efficient Solar District Heating Systems. ISEC 2022. 5 - 07. April 2022, Graz. Poster presentation.

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Peer reviewed papers | 2022

Increased Flexibility of A Fixed-Bed Biomass Gasifier through Advanced Control

Hollenstein C, Zemann C, Martini S, Gölles M, Felsberger W, Horn M. Increased Flexibility of A Fixed-Bed Biomass Gasifier through Advanced Control. Proceedings of the 30th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition. 2022. 704-711.

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Most industrial fixed-bed biomass gasification systems usually operate at steady-state to produce the maximum amount of energy possible although they can principally modulate their loads to compensate for the fluctuations of other volatile renewable energy systems. To unleash their full load modulation capability, their typically traditional control strategies should be improved, their gas residence times affected by typically basic char removal strategies adjusted and any required manual interaction of an operator avoided. In this respect, a new controller for the char handling (accumulation and removal) of the reduction zone in a fixed-bed biomass gasifier of a representative industrial small-scale gasification system is developed and experimentally verified. This new controller consists of a recursive least-squares estimator for the flow resistance of the gasifier representing the amount of char inside and a switching controller for rotating a grate located at its bottom. The experimental verification reveals that only the traditional (pressure-based) controller requires manual adjustment of the thresholds. Moreover, the new controller (flow resistance based) significantly reduces the fluctuation range during partial load and stabilizes the temperature and pressure downstream the gasifier. This provides the basis for enhancing its fuel flexibility too and is an important feature for flexible operation in future.

Conference presentations and posters | 2022

Model-based control of absorption heat pumping systems

Staudt S, Unterberger V, Muschick D, Wernhart M, Rieberer R. Model-based control of absorption heat pumping systems. 2022. Abstract from 22. Styrian Workshop on Automatic Control, Leitring/Wagna, Austria.

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Absorption heat pumping systems (AHPSs, comprising absorption heat pumps and chillers) are devices that mainly use thermal energy instead of electricity to generate heating and cooling. This thermal energy can be provided by, e.g., waste heat or renewable energy sources such as solar energy, which allow AHPSs to contribute to ressource-efficient heating and cooling systems. Despite this benefit, AHPSs are still not a widespread technology. One reason for this is unsatisfactory controllability under varying operating conditions, which results in poor modulation and partial load capability. Emloying model-based control is a promising approach to address this issue, which will be the focus of this  contribution.
First, a viable control-oriented model for AHPSs is developed. It is based on physical correlations to facilitate systematic adaptions to different scales and operating conditions and considers only the most relevant mass and energy stores to keep the model order at a minimum. The resulting model is mathematically simple but still has the structure of a nonlinear differential-algebraic system of equations. This is typical for models of thermo-chemical
processes, but is unfortunately not suitable for many control design methods. Therefore, linearization at an operating point is discussed to derive a model in linear state space representation. Experimental validation results show that the linearized model does have slightly worse steady-state accuracy than the nonlinear model, but that the dynamic accuracy seems to be almost unaffected by the linearization and is considered sufficiently good to be used in control design.
As a next step, the linearized model is used to design model-based control strategies for AHPSs. A special focus is put on redundantly-actuated configurations, i.e. configurations with more manipulated variables than controlled variables, which allows using additional degrees of freedom to extend the operating range of AHPS and hence improve their partial load capability. Two model-based control approaches are discussed: First, a linear model predictive control (MPC) approach is presented - a well-established and generally easy-to-parameterize approach, which, however, often results in high computational effort prohibitive to its implementation on a conventional PLC. Therefore, a second control approach based on state feedback is presented which is mathematically simple enough for implementation on a conventional PLC. It consists of an observer for state variables and unknown disturbances, a state feedback controller and, in case of redundantly-actuated configurations, a dynamic control allocation algorithm. Both approaches are experimentally validated and compared to a state-of-the art control approach based on SISO PI control, showing that the model-based MIMO control approaches allow for a wider operating range and hence better modulation and partial load capability compared to the SISO PI approach. This, in turn, reduces ON/OFF operation of AHPSs and also facilitates their integration into complex energy systems to generate heating and cooling in a ressource-efficient manner.

Other papers | 2022

Netzdienliche Nutzung von Bauteilaktivierung in Gebäuden durch vorausschauende Regelungen – Ergebnisse aus dem Projekt ÖKO-OPT-AKTIV

Kaisermayer V, Muschick D, Gölles M. Netzdienliche Nutzung von Bauteilaktivierung in Gebäuden durch vorausschauende Regelungen – Ergebnisse aus dem Projekt ÖKO-OPT-AKTIV. Abschlussworkshop - IEA DHC Annex TS3: Hybride Energie-Netze. 20. Oktober 2022, online.

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Reports | 2022

Optimiertes Regelungs- und Betriebsverhalten thermisch aktivierter Gebäude zukünftiger Stadtquartiere (ÖKO-OPT-AKTIV)

Muschick D, Kaisermayer V, Moser A, Gölles M, Heimrath R, Brandl D, Mach T, Ribas-Tugores C, Ramschak T, Oswald S, Polster M, Lackner F, Eibisberger K, Nebel M. Optimiertes Regelungs- und Betriebsverhalten thermisch aktivierter Gebäude zukünftiger Stadtquartiere (ÖKO-OPT-AKTIV). Stadt der Zukunft 6. Ausschreibung. BMK. Schriftenreihe 60/2023. Jänner, 2022. Deutsch, 76 Seiten.

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Peer reviewed papers | 2022

Smart control of interconnected district heating networks on the example of “100% Renewable District Heating Leibnitz”

Kaisermayer V, Binder J, Muschick D, Beck G, Rosegger W, Horn M, Gölles M, Kelz J, Leusbrock I. Smart control of interconnected district heating networks on the example of “100% Renewable District Heating Leibnitz”. Smart Energy. 2022 Apr 7. 100069. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.segy.2022.100069

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District heating (DH) networks have the potential for intelligent integration and combination of renewable energy sources, waste heat, thermal energy storage, heat consumers, and coupling with other sectors. As cities and municipalities grow, so do the corresponding networks. This growth of district heating networks introduces the possibility of interconnecting them with neighbouring networks. Interconnecting formerly separated DH networks can result in many advantages concerning flexibility, overall efficiency, the share of renewable sources, and security of supply. Apart from the problem of hydraulically connecting the networks, the main challenge of interconnected DH systems is the coordination of multiple feed-in points. It can be faced with control concepts for the overall DH system which define optimal operation strategies. This paper presents two control approaches for interconnected DH networks that optimize the supply as well as the demand side to reduce CO2 emissions. On the supply side, an optimization-based energy management system defines operation strategies based on demand forecasts. On the demand side, the operation of consumer substations is influenced in favour of the supply using demand side management. The proposed approaches were tested both in simulation and in a real implementation on the DH network of Leibnitz, Austria. First results show a promising reduction of CO2 emissions by 35% and a fuel cost reduction of 7% due to better utilization of the production capacities of the overall DH system.

Other Publications | 2022

Solar goes Digital: Wie Solarwärme selbstlernende Algorithmen nutzt (Austria Solar Webinar 26)

Unterberger V. Solar goes Digital: Wie Solarwärme selbstlernende Algorithmen nutzt (Austria Solar Webinar 26). Online am 11.05.2022.

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Conference presentations and posters | 2022

Success Factors and Barriers for Integrated District Heating Networks

Muschick D, Cronbach D, Ianakiev A, Kallert A, Schmidt R-R, Sorknaes P et al. Success Factors and Barriers for Integrated District Heating Networks. 2022. Postersitzung präsentiert bei 2nd International Sustainable Energy Conference , Graz, Österreich.

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Other papers | 2022

Technology and Process Improvement of a Demonstration Unit for a Novel Aqueous Phase Reforming Process Via Virtual Commissioning

Nigitz T, Arlt S, Poms U, Weber G, Luisser M, Gölles M. Technology and Process Improvement of a Demonstration Unit for a Novel Aqueous Phase Reforming Process Via Virtual Commissioning. Proceedings of the 30th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition. 2022. 948 - 950.

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A process demonstration unit for a novel aqueous phase reforming (APR) process was built and scaled up by factor 666. The set-up of this demonstration unit was supported by virtual commissioning using a virtual test bed. By using virtual commissioning, it was possible to speed-up the commissioning and to support stable, reliable and continuous plant operation for 100h.

Peer reviewed papers | 2022

Unknown input observer design for linear time-invariant multivariable systems based on a new observer normal form

Niederwieser H, Tranninger M, Seeber R, Reichhartinger M. Unknown input observer design for linear time-invariant multivariable systems based on a new observer normal form. International Journal of Systems Science. 2022 Apr 6. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207721.2022.2046201

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In various applications in the field of control engineering, the estimation of the state variables of dynamic systems in the presence of unknown inputs plays an important role. Existing methods require the so-called observer matching condition to be satisfied, rely on the boundedness e variables or exhibit an increased observer order of at least twice the plant order. In this article, a novel observer normal form for strongly observable linear time-invariant multivariable systems is proposed. In contrast to classical normal forms, the proposed approach also takes the unknown inputs into account. The proposed observer normal form allows for the straightforward construction of a higher-order sliding mode observer, which ensures global convergence of the estimation error within finite time even in the presence of unknown bounded inputs. Its application is not restricted to systems which satisfy the aforementioned limitations of already existing unknown input observers. The proposed approach can be exploited for the reconstruction of unknown inputs with bounded derivative and robust state-feedback control, which is shown by means of a tutorial example. Numerical simulations confirm the effectiveness of the presented work.

Peer reviewed papers | 2022

Unknown Input Observer Design for Linear Time-Invariant Systems - A Unifying Framework

Tranninger M, Niederwieser H, Seeber R, Horn M. Unknown Input Observer Design for Linear Time-Invariant Systems - A Unifying Framework. International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control. 2022 Nov 18. https://doi.org/10.1002/rnc.6399

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This article presents a new observer design approach for linear time invariant multivariable systems subject to unknown inputs. The design is based on a transformation to the so-called special coordinate basis (SCB). This form reveals important system properties like invertability or the finite and infinite zero structure. Depending on the system's strong observability properties, the SCB allows for a straightforward unknown input observer design utilizing linear or nonlinear observers design techniques. The chosen observer design technique does not only depend on the system properties, but also on the desired convergence behavior of the observer. Hence, the proposed design procedure can be seen as a unifying framework for unknown input observer design.

Conference presentations and posters | 2022

Vereinfachung von Absorptionskälteanlagen-Modellen

Wernhart MW, Rieberer R, Staudt S, Unterberger V, Gölles M. Vereinfachung von Absorptionskälteanlagen-Modellen. Deutsche Kälte- und Klimatagung 2022: DKV-Tagung 2022. 18. November 2022. Magdeburg, Germany.

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Peer reviewed papers | 2021

An adaptive short-term forecasting method for the energy yield of flat-plate solar collector systems

Unterberger V, Lichtenegger K, Kaisermayer V, Gölles M, Horn M. An adaptive short-term forecasting method for the energy yield of flat-plate solar collector systems. Applied Energy. 2021 Apr 16;2021(293). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2021.116891

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The number of large-scale solar thermal installations has increased rapidly in Europe in recent years, with 70 % of these systems operating with flat-plate solar collectors. Since these systems cannot be easily switched on and off but directly depend on the solar radiation, they have to be combined with other technologies or integrated in large energy systems. In order to most efficiently integrate and operate solar systems, it is of great importance to consider their expected energy yield to better schedule heat production, storage and distribution. To do so the availability of accurate forecasting methods for the future solar energy yield are essential. Currently available forecasting methods do not meet three important practical requirements: simple implementation, automatic adaption to seasonal changes and wide applicability. For these reasons, a simple and adaptive forecasting method is presented in this paper, which allows to accurately forecast the solar heat production of flat-plate collector systems considering weather forecasts. The method is based on a modified collector efficiency model where the parameters are continuously redetermined to specifically consider the influence of the time of the day. In order to show the wide applicability the method is extensively tested with measurement data of various flat-plate collector systems covering different applications (below 200 Celsius), sizes and orientations. The results show that the method can forecast the solar yield very accurately with a Mean Absolute Range Normalized Error (MARNE) of about 5 % using real weather forecasts as inputs and outperforms common forecasting methods by being nearly twice as accurate.

Other Publications | 2021

Betrieb verbundener Nahwärmenetze mit getrennten Eigentümern

Zemann C, Muschick D, Kaisermayer V, Gölles M. Betrieb verbundener Nahwärmenetze mit getrennten Eigentümern. QM Heizwerke Fachtagung, Bad Vöslau, 14. Oktober, 2021. (oral presentation)

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Warum ist es sinnvoll, Wärmenetze zu verbinden?

  • Erläuterung am Beispiel des Projekts Thermaflex
  • Drei Wärmenetze bei Leibnitz in der Steiermark.
  • Sind gewachsen und haben die Grenzen ihrer Nachbar-Wärmenetze erreicht.
  • Die Wärmenetze werden durch zwei getrennte Eigentümer betrieben.
Other Publications | 2021

CO-lambda Optimierung - Betrieb von Biomassefeuerungen mit maximaler Effizienz und minimalen Emissionen

Zemann C. CO-lambda Optimierung - Betrieb von Biomassefeuerungen mit maximaler Effizienz und minimalen Emissionen. CO-lambda Optimierung - Betrieb von Biomassefeuerungen mit maximaler Effizienz und minimalen Emissionen. March 2021.

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Reports | 2021

Control of DHC networks and Reduction of the operating temperatures in DH systems

Task 55 Towards the Integration of Large SHC Systems into DHC Networks

Gölles M, Muschick D, Unterberger V, Leoni P, Schmidt R, Lennermo G. "Control of DHC networks and Reduction of the operating temperatures in DH systems". EA SHC FACTSHEET 55.A-D4.2. Date of Publication: 28.01.2021. https://task55.iea-shc.org/fact-sheets

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Overview on different approaches for the control of the heat distribution networks in case of the integration of large-scale solar thermal systems, and different possibilities for the reduction of the operating temperatures in DH systems.

Reports | 2021

Control of large-scale solar thermal plants

Task 55 Towards the Integration of Large SHC Systems into DHC Networks

Gölles M, Unterberger V. "Control of large-scale solar thermal plants". IEA SHC FACTSHEET 55.B-D3.1. Date of Publication: 28.01.2021. https://task55.iea-shc.org/fact-sheets

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Overview on the control of large-scale thermal plants, limited to plants feeding into DH networks as well as theirkey components, i.e. the actual collector circuit and the heat exchanger between primary and secondary circuit.

Reports | 2021

Endbericht: Heat Pumping system Control (HPC)

Modellbasierte Regelung von Absorptionswärmepump-Anlagen.

Zlabinger S, Wernhart M, Unterberger V, Rieberer R, Gölles M, Rohringer C, Poier H, Halmdienst C, Kemmerzehl C, Otto M. Heat Pumping system Control (HPC). Modellbasierte Regelung von Absorptionswärmepump-Anlagen. FFG, 4. Ausschreibung Energieforschungsprogramm, Projektnummer: 865095. Endbericht. 2021.

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Other Publications | 2021

HPC - Workshop

Experimentelle Analyse, Simulation und Regelung von Absorptionswärmepumpen/-kältemaschinen

Zlabinger S, Unterberger V, Gölles M, Wernhart M, Rieberer R, Poier H, Rohinger C, Kemmerzehl C, Halmdienst C. Experimentelle Analyse, Simulation und Regelung von Absorptionswärmepumpen/-kältemaschinen. Online-Workshop im Rahmen des FFG-Projekts HPC ("4. Ausschreibung Energieforschung 2017") am 09.04.2021.

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Durch die vermehrte Einbindung von Absorptionswärmepumpen und -kältemaschinen in bestehende und zukünftige Energiesysteme des Kälte- und Wärmesektors kann der Anteil erneuerbarer Energien deutlich gesteigert werden. Um dies erfolgreich umsetzen zu können, müssen die Betriebsstrategien und Regelungen dieser Systeme jedoch in der Lage sein, auch mit dynamischen und stark variierenden Betriebsbedingungen umgehen zu können. Dieser Herausforderung hat sich das von der FFG geförderte Projekt HPC – heat pumping system control gewidmet. Im Rahmen dieses Workshops sollen die Ergebnisse und deren Nutzen für die Praxis präsentiert und diskutiert werden.

Peer reviewed papers | 2021

Model-Based Estimation of the Flue Gas Mass Flow in Biomass Boilers.

Niederwieser H, Zemann C, Goelles M, Reichhartinger M. Model-Based Estimation of the Flue Gas Mass Flow in Biomass Boilers. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology. 2021 Jul;19(4):1609 - 1622. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCST.2020.3016404

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Three estimators for the estimation of the flue gas mass flow in biomass boilers are presented and compared, namely a sliding-mode observer, a Kalman filter, and a so-called steady-state estimator. The flue gas mass flow is an important process variable in biomass boilers as it contains information about the supplied mass flows of air and decomposed fuel. It is also related to the generated heat flow. Furthermore, its knowledge may be exploited in model-based control strategies which allow one to keep pollutant emissions low, on the one hand, and to achieve high efficiency, on the other hand. However, due to fouling of the equipment over time, measurements and existing estimation methods are not suitable for long-term applications. The estimators proposed in this article are based on a dynamic model for gas tube heat exchangers. They are capable of handling the fouling of the heat exchanger and, additionally, they offer the possibility of monitoring the degree of fouling. By incorporating an additional differential pressure measurement and extending the aforementioned estimators, an improvement regarding the dynamic response and the estimation accuracy is achieved. The application of the estimators to real measurement data from both, a medium-scale and a small-scale biomass boiler, demonstrates their wide applicability.

Other Publications | 2021

Modelling and control of large-scale solar thermal systems

Unterberger V. Modelling and control of large-scale solar thermal systems. 2021. 212 p.

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Heat makes up the largest share of energy end-use, accounting for 50% of global final energy consumption in 2018 and contributing to about 40% of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Of the total heat produced, about 46% was consumed in buildings for space and water heating. Large-scale solar thermal systems provide a highly valuable possibility to increase the share of renewables in heating systems and to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. In this context, the worldwide number of large-scale solar heating systems has increased rapidly in the last couple of years, especially in China and European countries, e.g. in Denmark. This has led to the installation of about 400 large-scale solar thermal systems ( ≥ 350kWth, 500m²) by the end of 2019.
Unlike other heating systems, their main source of power (solar radiation) cannot be manipulated and is subject to changes on a seasonal as well as on a daily basis. That is why control systems play a very important role for the efficient operation of these systems. This thesis therefore focuses on the application of model-based control strategies, and the necessary preliminary work regarding modelling, in order to achieve an efficient control of large-scale solar thermal systems. Consequently, the thesis addresses three important aspects:
In the first main section, models of components of large-scale solar thermal systems are developed and validated. For the most important components (heat exchanger, solar collector and sensible heat storage), two models of different complexity, one simulation-oriented, one control-oriented, are developed. While the simulation-oriented models aim to model the physical behaviour very accurately in order to be used in simulation studies, control-oriented models aim to model the physical behaviour only as accurately as necessary in order to serve as a basis for model-based control strategies. All models are validated with measurement data from a typical solar system, and it is shown that they are sufficiently accurate for their intended purpose. The sum of the models provides a holistic view on all modelling aspects that have to be considered in large-scale solar thermal plants, and serves as a reasonable basis for model-based control strategies and accurate simulation studies of solar systems.
In the second main section, adaptive forecasting methods for the future solar heat production as well as the heat demand are developed and validated with measurement data and using real weather forecasts. These methods are important to most efficiently integrate and operate solar systems by better scheduling heat production, storage and distribution for the near future. In order to be used in real-world applications, the methods are developed with the goal to meet three important practical requirements: simple implementation, automatic adaption to seasonal changes, and wide applicability. The final long-term evaluation for half a year proves that the developed methods can forecast the solar heat production as well as the heat demand very accurately and outperform common forecasting methods, yielding results that are nearly twice as accurate.
In the third main section, model-based control strategies for the high-level as well as for the low-level control of solar thermal systems are developed and validated. For the high-level control an approach is presented which considers future information by using the developed forecasting methods. It achieves higher profits (plus 3 %) and leads to a more stable operation, compared to the existing commercial solution. For the low-level control, model-based control strategies based on the developed models for the heat generation and distribution are presented. The model-based control strategy for the heat generation considers the dynamic behaviour of the collector and especially considers the variable time-delay. This, compared to conventional control strategies, leads to a significantly better control performance in case of fluctuating solar radiation and changing inlet temperatures. The model-based control strategy for the heat distribution follows a modular approach which can be applied for several hydraulic settings, leading to an accurate and independent control of mass flow and temperature, and outperforms state-of-the-art control strategies. For both control levels, care was taken that the applied strategies can be used in real-world applications regarding their mathematical complexity and computational resources required.
In summary, this thesis presents a holistic approach regarding modelling (simulation-oriented models, control-oriented models and adaptive forecasting methods) and control aspects (high-level as well as low-level control) which can help to improve the efficiency of large-scale solar thermal plants on various levels, making them more competitive, and is furthermore essential for a successful integration of these plants in larger energy systems.

Peer reviewed papers | 2021

Operation of coupled multi-owner district heating networks via distributed optimization

Kaisermayer V, Muschick D, Horn M, Gölles M. Operation of coupled multi-owner district heating networks via distributed optimization. Energy Reports. 2021 Okt;7(Suppl. 4):273-281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egyr.2021.08.145

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The growth of district heating and cooling (DHC) networks introduces the possibility of connecting them with neighbouring networks. Coupling networks can save costs by reducing operating hours of peak load or backup boilers, or free up production capacity for network expansion. Optimization-based energy management systems (EMS) already provide operators of individual DHC networks with solutions to the unit commitment and economic dispatch problem. They are especially useful for complex networks with multiple producers and integrated renewable energy sources, where incorporating forecasts is important. Time-dependent constraints and network capacity limitations can easily be considered. For coupled networks, a centralized optimization would provide a minimum with respect to an objective function which can incorporate fuel costs, operational costs and costs for emissions. However, the individual coupled networks are generally owned by different organizations with competing objectives. The centralized solution might not be accepted, as each company aims to optimize its own objective. Additionally, all data has to be shared with a centralized EMS, and it represents a single point of failure. A decentralized EMS may therefore be a better choice in a multi-owner setting. In this article, a novel decentralized EMS is presented that can handle multi-owner structures with cooperative and non-cooperative coupling. Each local EMS solves its own optimization problem, and an iterative Jacobi-style algorithm ensures consensus among the networks. The distributed EMS is compared to a centralized EMS based on a representative real-world example consisting of three coupled district heating networks operated by two companies.

Other Publications | 2021

Operation of Coupled Multi-Owner District Heating Networks via Distributed Optimization

Muschick D, Gölles M, Kaisermayer V, Horn M. Operation of Coupled Multi-Owner District Heating Networks via Distributed Optimization.17th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling. Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom. 7. Sep 2021. Oral Presentation. [online]

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The simultaneous operation of multiple connected heating networks can be handled by optimization techniques. However, a global optimum might not represent a good operating strategy if the networks belong to different owners and thus might habe competing interests. An approach from game theory then needs to be applied, which finds a generalized Nash equilibrium instead.

Other Publications | 2021

Optimal operation of cross-ownership district heating and cooling networks

Muschick D, Kaisermayer V, Gölles M, Horn M.Optimal operation of cross-ownership district heating and cooling networks. 20th European Roundtable on Sustainable Consumption and Production. 9. Sep 2021. Graz. Oral Presentation.

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Reports | 2021

Supervisory control of large-scale solar thermal systems

Task 55 Towards the Integration of Large SHC Systems into DHC Networks

Gölles M, Unterberger V, Kaisermayer V, Nigitz T, Muschick D. "Supervisory control of large-scale solar thermal systems". IEA SHC FACTSHEET 55.A-D4.1. Date of Publication: 28.01.2021. https://task55.iea-shc.org/fact-sheets

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Overview on different approaches for supervisory control strategies,deciding on operating modes and set points for the controls of the different plants and componentsintegrated in solar thermal systems.

Other papers | 2021

The robust exact differentiator toolbox revisited: Filtering and discretization features.

Andritsch B, Horn M, Koch S, Niederwieser H, Wetzlinger M, Reichhartinger M. The robust exact differentiator toolbox revisited: Filtering and discretization features. in 2021 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics, ICM 2021. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. 2021. 9385675 https://doi.org/10.1109/ICM46511.2021.9385675

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An extended version of a Simulink ® -block providing on-line differentiation algorithms based on discretized sliding-mode concepts is presented. Based on user-specified settings it computes estimates of the time-derivatives of the input signal up to order ten. Different discrete-time estimation algorithms as well as optional filtering properties can be selected. The paper includes an overview of the implemented algorithms, a detailed explanation of the developed Simulink ® -block and two examples. The first example illustrates the application of the toolbox in a numerical simulation environment whereas the second one shows results obtained via an electrical laboratory setup.

Conference presentations and posters | 2020

"Long-term verification of a new modular method for CO-lambda-optimisation"

Zemann C, Hammer F, Gölles M. Long-term verification of a new modular method for CO-lambda-optimisation. 6th Central European Biomass Conference CEBC 2020 (Oral Presentation). 2020.

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Peer reviewed papers | 2020

A MILP-based modular energy management system for urban multi-energy systems: Performance and sensitivity analysis

Moser AGC, Muschick D, Gölles M, Nageler PJ, Schranzhofer H, Mach T et al. A MILP-based modular energy management system for urban multi-energy systems: Performance and sensitivity analysis. Applied Energy. 2020;2020(261). 114342.

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The continuous increase of (volatile) renewable energy production and the coupling of different energy sectors such as heating, cooling and electricity have significantly increased the complexity of urban energy systems. Such multi-energy systems (MES) can be operated more efficiently with the aid of optimization-based energy management systems (EMS). However, most existing EMS are tailor-made for one specific system or class of systems, i.e. are not generally applicable. Furthermore, only limited information on the actual savings potential of the usage of an EMS under realistic conditions is available. Therefore, this paper presents a novel modular modeling approach for an EMS for urban MES, which also enables the modeling of complex system configurations. To assess the actual savings potential of the proposed EMS, a comprehensive case study was carried out. In the course of this the influence of different user behavior, changing climatic conditions and forecast errors on the savings potential was analyzed by comparing it with a conventional control strategy. The results showed that using the proposed EMS in conjunction with supplementary system components (thermal energy storage and battery) an annual cost savings potential of between 3 and 6% could be achieved.

Other Publications | 2020

Betrieb bei maximaler Effizienz und minimalen Emissionen durch CO-lambda-Optimierung

Zemann C, Hammer F, Gölles M. Betrieb bei maximaler Effizienz und minimalen Emissionen durch CO-lambda-Optimierung. Informationstag für Biomassegenossen-schaften Bildungshaus Sankt Magdalena. February 2020.

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Peer reviewed papers | 2020

Control of biomass grate boilers using internal model control

Schörghuber C, Gölles M, Reichhartinger M, Horn M. Control of Biomass Grate Boilers using Internal Model Control. Control engineering practice. 2020.

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A new model-based control strategy for biomass grate boilers is presented in this paper. Internal model control is used to control four outputs of the plant and to achieve a control structure with fewer control parameters needing to be experimentally tuned. A nonlinear state–space model describing the essential behaviour of the biomass grate boiler is used for controller design. The inverse system dynamics representing the main part of internal model control are designed with the help of this model. In doing so the properties of differentially flat systems are used. Due to a time delayed input, the inverse system is determined only for three input output channels. The stabilization of the inverse system dynamics, however, is a challenging task. A stabilization method with the help of the time delayed input is suggested and a stability analysis is given. The new control strategy has only three parameters to be tuned, representing a major reduction of complexity in comparison to existing model-based approaches. Finally, experimental results of the implemented control strategy on representative biomass grate boiler with a nominal capacity of 180 kW are presented and compared to an existing model-based control strategy based on input output linearization. The experimental evaluation proves that it is possible to operate the biomass boiler in all load ranges with high efficiency and low pollutant emissions.

Peer reviewed papers | 2020

Decentralized heating grid operation: A comparison of centralized and agent-based optimization

Lichtenegger K, Leitner A, Märzinger T, Mair C, Moser A, Wöss D, Schmidl C, Pröll T. Decentralized heating grid operation: A comparison of centralized and agent-based optimization. Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks. 2020;2020(21).

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Moving towards a sustainable heat supply calls for decentralized and smart heating grid solutions. One promising concept is the decentralized feed-in by consumers equipped with their own small production units (prosumers). Prosumers can provide an added value regarding security of supply, emission reduction and economic welfare, but in order to achieve this, in addition to advanced hydraulic control strategies also superordinate control strategies and appropriate market models become crucial.

In this article we study methods to find a global optimum for the local energy community or at least an acceptable approximation to it. In contrast to standard centralized control approaches, based either on expert rules or mixed integer linear optimization, we adopt an agent-based, decentralized approach that allows for incorporation of nonlinear phenomena. While studied here in small-scale systems, this approach is particularly attractive for larger systems, since with an increasing number of interacting units, the optimization problem becomes more complex and the computational effort for centralized approaches increases dramatically.

The agent-based optimization approach is compared to centralized optimization of the same prosumer-based setting as well as to a purely central setup. The comparison is based on the quality of the optimization solution, the computational effort and the scalability. For the comparison of these three approaches, three different scenarios have been set up and analysed for four seasons. In this analysis, no approach has emerged as clearly superior to the others; thus each of them is justified in certain situations.

Other papers | 2020

Dynamische Simulation von Absorptionskälteanlagen – Dymola-Modell einer H2O/LiBr-Absorptionskälteanlage

Wernhart M, Rieberer R, Zlabinger S, Unterberger V, Gölles M. Dynamische Simulation von Absorptionskälteanlagen: Dymola-Modell einer H2O/LiBr-Absorptionskälteanlage. in Proc. Deutsche Kälte-Klima-Tagung 2020. Deutscher Kälte- und Klimatechnischer Verein e.V. 2020

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Absorptionskälteanlagen können einen wesentlichen Beitrag zur Verringerung von CO2-Emissionen leisten, wenn Wärme aus regenerativen Energieträgern oder Abwärme aus industriellen Prozessen zum Antrieb verwendet wird. Absorptionskälteanlagen weisen bereits jetzt eine hohe Effizienz auf, bei veränderlichen Betriebsbedingungen kann diese je nach vorhandenen Stellgliedern weiter gesteigert werden. Dazu werden im Rahmen des Forschungsprojektes „Heat Pumping Systems Control (HPC)“ zwei Absorptionskälteanlagen – eine mit der Stoffpaarung Ammoniak/Wasser (NH3/H2O) und eine mit der Stoffpaarung Wasser/Lithiumbromid (H2O/LiBr) – untersucht, um für unterschiedliche Anwendungen optimale Betriebsstrategien zu entwickeln. Zur Berücksichtigung der Zustandsänderungen in der Absorptionskälteanlage, werden dynamische Simulationsmodelle in der Modellierungssprache Modelica entwickelt und mit Messdaten validiert.

Im Rahmen dieses Konferenzbeitrags werden Komponentenmodelle für die NH3/H2O-Absorptionskälteanlage und Simulationsrechnungen bei veränderlichen Randbedingungen präsentiert, sowie ein Vergleich mit Messdaten diskutiert.

Other papers | 2020

Evaluation of the Transient Behaviour of a Fixed-Bed Biomass Gasifier for Demand-Oriented Electricity Production

Hollenstein C, Zemann C, Antolini D, Patuzzi F, Martini S, Baratieri M, Gölles M. Horn M. Evaluation of the Transient Behaviour of a Fixed-Bed Biomass Gasifier for Demand-Oriented Electricity Production. 28th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition. 6-9 July 2020.

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The majority of renewable energy technologies are volatile in nature. External factors such as weather conditions lead to fluctuations in their produced electricity and heat. This results in a demand either not being covered or dissatisfied since too much electricity and heat is produced in the energy system. Although energy storages can counteract these fluctuations, renewable energy technologies that are capable of producing energy on demand are needed as well. As such, technologies based on the thermochemical conversion of biomass are especially relevant as they are considered to be CO2-neutral. Although most existing implementations are based on combustion of biomass, fixed-bed biomass gasification is of growing relevance due to higher overall efficiencies and low pollutant emissions. Currently, fixed-bed biomass gasifiers are usually operated at steady-state operation to produce the maximum amount of energy possible. This contribution investigates, whether they can be used as a technology for demand-oriented electricity and heat production

Other papers | 2020

Experimentally verified dynamic simulation model of a NH3/H2O-absorption refrigeration system

Wernhart M, Rieberer R, Zlabinger S, Unterberger V, Gölles M. Experimentally verified dynamic simulation model of a NH3/H2O-absorption refrigeration system. in Japan Society of Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Hrsg., 14th IIR Gustav-Lorentzen Conference on Natural Fluids, GL 2020 - Proceedings. International Institute of Refrigeration. 2020. S. 103-109. (Refrigeration Science and Technology). https://doi.org/10.18462/iir.gl.2020.1145

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The operation characteristics of thermally driven absorption refrigeration systems (ARS) are strongly dependent on their hydraulic integration. Therefore, varying operating conditions of the hydraulic supply have a great influence on the behaviour of ARS and lead to dynamic operation, which can affect the efficiency and is largely unexplored so far. To enable a simple investigation of ARS integration considering their dynamic behaviour and to develop modern, efficiency-enhancing control strategies, dynamic simulation models of ARS are developed in Modelica Code.

In this paper, a dynamic simulation model of an ARS with the working pair ammonia/water (NH3/H2O) is presented. The parameterization and the physical correlations of selected components of the simulation model are described. Afterwards, the simulation model is verified by comparing simulation results with measurement data of the NH3/H2O-ARS. Finally, the capabilities of the simulation model are demonstrated by performing a simulation-based analysis of the temperature glide of the refrigerant in the evaporator.

Other papers | 2020

Experimentally verified dynamic simulation model of a NH3/H2O-absorption refrigeration system

Wernhart MW, Rieberer R, Zlabinger S, Unterberger V, Gölles M. Experimentally verified dynamic simulation model of a NH3/H2O-absorption refrigeration system.14th IIR-Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Refrigerants: GL 2020. 7 Dec 2020. Oral presentation (online).

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Peer reviewed papers | 2020

Increased efficiency of dual fluidized bed plants via a novel control strategy

Nigitz T, Gölles M, Aichernig C, Schneider S, Hofbauer H, Horn M. Increased efficiency of dual fluidized bed plants via a novel control strategy. Biomass & Bioenergy. 2020 Okt;141. 105688. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2020.105688

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Industrial plants using DFB biomass gasification are on the verge of profitability. These plants should be operated more economically in order to support the industrial applications for renewable technologies of this kind. Since some parts of such plants are typically difficult to control, a state-of-the-art control strategy is analyzed here in the context of its potential for increased economic efficiency. The DFB gasification plant “HGA Senden” in Ulm, Germany is considered on an exemplary basis here. A process analysis reveals a high potential in the synchronization of product gas generation and utilization. At the present time a relevant surplus of product gas is burned in an auxiliary boiler for synchronization purposes and regular manual adjustments at the fuel feed are necessary by the plant operators. For this synchronization a novel control strategy is developed that actuates the auxiliary boiler and the fuel feed simultaneously. The novel control strategy was experimentally validated for a period of over one month. Due to this long-term evaluation the fuel consumption was reduced by 5% and the manual adjustments of the fuel feed that were necessary on average every 30min were eliminated. As a result DFB gasification plants can be operated more economically by applying the novel control strategy for synchronization of product gas generation and utilization.

Other papers | 2020

Long-term validation of a new modular approach for CO-lambda-optimization

Zemann C, Hammer F, Gölles M, Horn M. Long-term validation of a new modular approach for CO-lambda-optimization. 28th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition. 6-9 July 2020.

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Long Term Validation of a New Modular Approach for CO-Lambda-Optimization

The optimization of existing biomass boilers in terms of efficiency and pollutant emissions is essential for their continued economic and ecological viability in future energy systems. These improvements are typically achieved by constructive changes which are expensive and can require prolonged downtimes. A well-known method for optimizing biomass boilers in terms of efficiency and pollutant emissions without constructive changes is the so-called CO-lambda-optimization. While multiple approaches for CO-lambda-optimization have been presented in literature, they are still rarely used in real biomass boilers. This is partly due to the fact that these approaches do not meet the requirements associated with their long-term operation in real biomass boilers. This contribution presents a new and modular approach for the CO-lambda-optimization which is specifically designed to meet these requirements. Particular emphasis in this contribution is laid on the long-term validation of the presented approach for CO-lambda-optimization at a medium-scale fixed-bed biomass boiler.

Peer reviewed papers | 2020

Model-based control of hydraulic heat distribution systems — Theory and application

Unterberger V, Muschick D, Loidl A, Poms U, Gölles M, Horn M. Model-based control of hydraulic heat distribution systems — Theory and application. Control Engineering Practice. 2020;2020(101).104464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conengprac.2020.104464

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With the share of renewable energy sources increasing in heating and hot water applications, the role of hydraulic heat distribution systems is becoming more and more important. This is due to the fact that in order to compensate for the often fluctuating behaviour of the renewables a flexible heat transfer must be ensured by these distribution systems while also taking the optimal operating conditions (mass flow, temperature) of the individual components into consideration. This demanding task can be accomplished by independently controlling the two physical quantities mass flow and temperature. However, since there exists an intrinsic nonlinear coupling between these quantities this challenge cannot be handled sufficiently by decoupled linear PI controllers which are currently state-of-the-art in the heating sector. For this reason this paper presents a model-based control strategy which allows a decoupled control of mass flow and temperature. The strategy is based on a systematic design approach from models described in this contribution, which are validated by commercially available components from which most of them can be parametrized by the data sheet. The control strategy is designed for a typical hydraulic configuration used in heating systems, which will allow the accurate tracking of the desired trajectories for mass flows, temperatures and consequently heat flows. The controllers are validated experimentally and compared to well-tuned state-of-the-art (PI) controllers in order to illustrate their superiority and prove their decoupling of the control of mass flow and temperature in real world applications.

Peer reviewed papers | 2020

Optimal operation of residential heating systems with logwood boiler, buffer storage and solar thermal collector

Zemann C, Deutsch M, Zlabinger S, Hofmeister G, Gölles M, Horn M. Optimal operation of residential heating systems with logwood boiler, buffer storage and solar thermal collector. Biomass and Bioenergy, 2020,140:105622.

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Modern central heating systems with logwood boilers are comprised of the boiler, a buffer storage and solar thermal collectors. Conventional control strategies for these heating systems do not coordinate the utilization of all components. This can lead to a sub-optimal operation of the entire heating system resulting in a loss of efficiency and increased pollutant emissions. This contribution presents a control strategy which considers all components of the heating system including the user and forecasts for the solar yield and heat demand. It determines and carries out an optimal operating strategy that improves the user utility and maximizes the heating system efficiency while also ensuring a clean and efficient combustion. The control strategy continuously learns the user behavior and instructs the user when to refill the logwood boiler and how much fuel to use. The new control strategy was verified through test runs performed at an experimental setup consisting of a commercially available logwood boiler with a nominal capacity of 28 kW , two buffer storages with a capacity of 1.5 m3 each and a heating device with a thermal output of up to 12 kW simulating a solar thermal collector. During these test runs, the CO emissions were reduced 93.6 %by in the main combustion phase, 7.1 % more solar yield was utilized, the buffer losses were reduced by - 16.9 % and the overall efficiency was increased by 3.1 % . Thus, the application of this control strategy resulted in a significantly improved user utility and heating system efficiency.

Other papers | 2020

Power Systems in the context of district heating and cooling networks as an integrated energy system approach -Regulations and Business Cases within the IEA DHC Annex TS3

Kneiske T, Kallert A, Cronbach D, Yu Y, Schmidt D, Johannsen R, Sorknæs P, Muschick D, Ianakiev A, Svensson I, Schmidt R, Terreros O, Widl E. Power Systems in the context of district heating and cooling networks as an integrated energy system approach - Regulations and Business Cases within the IEA DHC Annex TS3. 48. CIGRE conference 2020. July 2020.

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Integrated energy systems 1 couples power systems, district heating and cooling (DHC), and gas grids, thereby enabling the storage and distribution of energy across different infrastructure types. Supply and demand follow different patterns in these different domains, which can lead to synergies in generation, storage and consumption, if planned and managed as one energy system. An integrated approach has the potential to increase reliability, flexibility and supply safety and efficiency. Moreover, network coupling increases local utilization of renewables, avoiding problems in the distribution networks, as well as transmission losses. In addition, hybrid energy networks are a promising opportunity to manage and mitigate temporal imbalances of supply and demand in energy systems with a high share of volatile renewables, mainly PV and wind energy. The IEA DHC Annex TS3 provides a holistic approach for designing and assessing hybridization schemes, focusing on the district heating and cooling (DHC) networks and considering both technical (system configuration, operational strategy) and strategic aspects (business models, regulatory frame). These aspects will be discussed within the framework of the IEA DHC Annex TS3 in order to promote the benefits of DHC networks in an integrated energy system. Furthermore we can establish a common direction for the development and implementation of hybrid energy concepts. The IEA DHC Annex TS3 will connect existing national and international projects and thus benefit from interdisciplinary experience and exchange. The primary result of the IEA DHC Annex TS3 will be a guidebook including:  Analyses of available technologies and synergies / application areas  An overview of international case studies including simulation scenarios 1 Different alternative notations can be found in literature, e.g. multi-energy networks, hybrid energy networks, sector coupling, multi-domain networks, cross energy systems. However, since no standard definition is available, those notations are used synonymously.

Peer reviewed papers | 2020

Progressive Hedging for Stochastic Energy Management Systems: The Mixed-Integer Linear Case

Kaisermayer V, Muschick D, Gölles M, Horn M. Progressive Hedging for Stochastic Energy Management Systems: The Mixed-Integer Linear Case. Energy Systems. 2020 Aug 29. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12667-020-00401-z

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Energy systems have increased in complexity in the past years due to the everincreasing integration of intermittent renewable energy sources such as solar thermal or wind power. Modern energy systems comprise different energy domains such as electrical power, heating and cooling which renders their control even more challenging. Employing supervisory controllers, so-called energy management systems (EMSs), can help to handle this complexity and to ensure the energy-efficient and cost-efficient operation of the energy system. One promising approach are optimization-based EMS, which can for example be modelled as stochastic mixed-integer linear programmes (SMILP). Depending on the problem size and control horizon, obtaining solutions for these in real-time is a difficult task. The progressive hedging (PH) algorithm is a practical way for splitting a large problem into smaller subproblems and solving them iteratively, thus possibly reducing the solving time considerably. The idea of the PH algorithm is to aggregate the solutions of subproblems, where artificial costs have been added. These added costs enforce that the aggregated solutions become non-anticipative and
are updated in every iteration of the algorithm. The algorithm is relatively simple to implement in practice, re-using almost all of a possibly existing deterministic implementations and can be easily parallelized.
Although it has no convergence guarantees in the mixed-integer linear case, it can nevertheless be used as a good heuristic for SMILPs. Recent theoretical results shown that for applying augmented Lagrangian functions in the context of mixed-integer programmes, any norm proofs to be a valid penalty function. This is not true for squared norms, like the squared L 2 -norm that is used in the classical progressive hedging algorithm. Building on these theoretical results, the use of the L 1 and L-infinity-norm in the PH algorithm is investigated in this paper. In order to incorporate these into the algorithm an adapted multiplier update step is proposed. Additionally a heuristic extension of the aggregation step and an adaptive penalty parameter update scheme from the literature is investigated. The advantages of the proposed modifications are demonstrated by means of illustrative examples, with the application to SMILP-based EMS in mind.

Other papers | 2020

Simultaneous state and fuel property estimation in biomass boilers - theory and practice

Zemann C, Gölles M, Horn M. Simultaneous state and fuel property estimation in biomass boilers - theory and practice. 1st Virtual IFAC World Congress. 2020.

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A key factor for the further distribution of biomass boilers in modern energy systems is the capability of changing the applied feedstock during normal plant operation. This is only possible with the application of advanced control strategies that utilize knowledge about the state variables and varying fuel properties. However, neither the state variables nor the fuel properties are measurable during plant operation and, thus, need to be estimated. This contribution presents a method for the simultaneous real-time estimation of the state variables and the fuel properties in fixed-bed biomass boilers which is a novel approach in the field of biomass boilers. The method bases on an Extended Kalman Filter using a nonlinear dynamic model and measurement data from the combustion process. The estimated variables are the masses of dry fuel and water in the fuel bed as well as the fuel's bulk density, water content, chemical composition and lower heating value. The proposed method is easy to implement and requires moderate computational effort which increases the potential of its application at actual biomass boilers. The proposed method is verified with simulation studies and by test runs performed at a representative small-scale fixed-bed biomass boiler. The estimation results show a good agreement with the actual values, demonstrating that the proposed method is capable of accurately estimating the biomass boiler's state variables and simultaneously its fuel properties. For this reason, the presented method is a key technology to ensure the further distribution of biomass boilers in modern energy systems.

Peer reviewed papers | 2020

Simultaneous state and fuel property estimation in biomass boilers - theory and practice

Zemann C, Gölles M, Horn M. Simultaneous state and fuel property estimation in biomass boilers - theory and practice. IFAC-PapersOnLine. 2020;53(2):12763-12770. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifacol.2020.12.1920

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A key factor for the further distribution of biomass boilers in modern energy systems is the capability of changing the applied feedstock during normal plant operation. This is only possible with the application of advanced control strategies that utilize knowledge about the state variables and varying fuel properties. However, neither the state variables nor the fuel properties are measurable during plant operation and, thus, need to be estimated. This contribution presents a method for the simultaneous real-time estimation of the state variables and the fuel properties in fixed-bed biomass boilers which is a novel approach in the field of biomass boilers. The method bases on an Extended Kalman Filter using a nonlinear dynamic model and measurement data from the combustion process. The estimated variables are the masses of dry fuel and water in the fuel bed as well as the fuel’s bulk density, water content, chemical composition and lower heating value. The proposed method is easy to implement and requires moderate computational effort which increases the potential of its application at actual biomass boilers. The proposed method is verified with simulation studies and by test runs performed at a representative small-scale fixed-bed biomass boiler. The estimation results show a good agreement with the actual values, demonstrating that the proposed method is capable of accurately estimating the biomass boiler’s state variables and simultaneously its fuel properties. For this reason, the presented method is a key technology to ensure the further distribution of biomass boilers in modern energy systems.

Other papers | 2020

Soft-Sensor for the on-line estimation of the flue gas mass flow in biomass boilers with additional monitoring of the heat exchanger fouling

Niederwieser H, Zemann C, Gölles M, Reichhartinger M. Soft-Sensor for the On-Line Estimation of the Flue Gas Mass Flow in Biomass Boilers with Additional Monitoring of the Heat Exchanger Fouling. In Proceedings of the 28th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2020 (eEUBCE 2020). 2020. p. 280 - 284

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The flue gas mass flow is one of the fundamental quantities of the combustion process in biomass boilers. Since it directly relates to the enthalpy flow entering the heat exchanger, its knowledge is highly advantageous for a sophisticated load control of the biomass boiler. It also includes information regarding the primary and secondary air mass flows as well as the mass flows of potentially occurring leakage air and thermally decomposed fuel. However, in practical application it is not possible to obtain a reliable measurement of the flue gas mass flow. For this reason, this work presents a soft-sensor for the on-line estimation of the flue gas mass flow in biomass boilers. The approach is robust against fouling of the relevant boiler components and is based on standard measurements which are typically available in biomass boilers. In addition, the soft-sensor offers the possibility of monitoring the degree of heat exchanger fouling.

Peer reviewed papers | 2020

The effect of the reaction equilibrium on the kinetics of gas-solid reactions — A non-parametric modeling study.

Birkelbach F, Deutsch M, Werner A. The effect of the reaction equilibrium on the kinetics of gas-solid reactions — A non-parametric modeling study. Renewable Energy 2020.152:300-307.

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The viability of thermochemical energy storage for a given application is often determined by the reaction kinetics under process conditions. For high exergetic efficiency the process needs to operate in close proximity to the reaction equilibrium. Thus, accurate kinetic models that include the effect of the reaction equilibrium are required.

In the present work, different parametrization methods for the equilibrium term in the General Kinetic Equation are evaluated by modeling the kinetics of two reaction systems relevant for thermochemical energy storage (CaC2O4 and CuO) from experimental data. A non-parametric modeling method based on tensor decompositions is used that allows for a purely data driven assessment of different parametrization methods.

Our analysis shows that including a suitable equilibrium term is crucial. Omitting the equilibrium term when modeling formation reactions can lead to seemingly negative activation energies. Our tests also show that for formation reactions, the reaction rate decreases much faster towards the equilibrium than theory predicts. We present an empirical modeling approach that can predict the reaction rate of gas-solid reactions, regardless of the shortcomings of theory. In this way, non-parametric modeling offers a powerful tool for applied research and may contribute to the advancement of the thermochemical energy storage technology.

Other papers | 2019

A Generalization of Ackermann’s Formula for the Design of Continuous and Discontinuous Observers

Niederwieser H, Koch S, Reichhartinger M. A Generalization of Ackermann’s Formula for the Design of Continuous and Discontinuous Observers. 58th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control. 2019.

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This paper proposes a novel design algorithm for nonlinear state observers for linear time-invariant systems. The approach is based on a well-known family of homogeneous differentiators and can be regarded as a generalization of Ackermann's formula. The method includes the classical Luenberger observer as well as continuous or discontinuous nonlinear observers, which enable finite time convergence. For strongly observable systems with bounded unknown perturbation at the input the approach also involves the design of a robust higher order sliding mode observer. An inequality condition for robustness in terms of the observer gains is presented. The properties of the proposed observer are also utilized in the reconstruction of the unknown perturbation and robust state-feedback control

Peer reviewed papers | 2019

A generally applicable, simple and adaptive forecasting method for the short-term heat load of consumers

Nigitz T, Gölles M. A generally applicable, simple and adaptive forecasting method for the short-term heat load of consumers. Applied Energy 2019;241:73-81.

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Energy management systems aiming for an efficient operation of hybrid energy systems with a high share of different renewable energy sources strongly benefit from short-term forecasts for the heat-load. The forecasting methods available in literature are typically tailor-made, complex and non-adaptive. This work condenses these methods to a generally applicable, simple and adaptive forecasting method for the short-term heat load. From a comprehensive literature review as well as the analysis of measurement data from seven different consumers, varying in size and type, the ambient temperature, the time of the day and the day of the week are deduced to be the most dominating factors influencing the heat load. According to these findings, the forecasting method bases on a linear regression model correlating the heat load with the ambient temperature for each hour of the day, additionally differentiating between working days and weekend days. These models are used to predict the future heat load by using forecasts for the ambient temperature from weather service providers. The model parameters are continuously updated by using historical data for the ambient temperature and the heat load, i.e. the forecasting method is adaptive. Additionally, the current prediction error is used to correct the prediction for the near future. Due to their simplicity, all necessary steps of the forecasting method, the update of the model parameters, the prediction based on linear regression models and the correction, can be implemented and computed with little effort. The final evaluation with measurement data from all seven consumers investigated leads to a Mean Absolute Range Normalized Error (MARNE) of 2.9% on average, and proves the general applicability of the forecasting method. In summary, the forecasting method developed is generally applicable, simple and adaptive, making it suitable for the use in energy management systems aiming for an efficient operation of hybrid energy systems.

Peer reviewed papers | 2019

Assessment of the Behaviour of a Commercial Gasification Plant During Load Modulation and Feedstock Moisture Variation

Antolini D, Hollenstein C, Martini S, Patuzzi F, Zemann C, Felsberger W et al. Assessment of the Behaviour of a Commercial Gasification Plant During Load Modulation and Feedstock Moisture Variation. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 2019 Jun 11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-019-00714-w

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Fixed-bed biomass gasification coupled with internal combustion engines allows an efficient exploitation of biomass for the combined production of heat and power (CHP) at small scale with increased economic viability with respect to combustion-based CHP systems. The main barrier on the way towards a wider market distribution is represented by the fact that a robust practical operation of state-of-the-art fixed-bed biomass gasification systems is limited to very specific fuel properties and steady-state operation. The aim of this work is twofold. On the one hand, it presents the results of a series of test runs performed in a monitored commercial plant under different process conditions, in order to assess its behaviour during load modulation and fuel property variations. On the other hand, an in-house developed thermodynamic equilibrium model was applied to predict the behaviour of the gasification reactor. This gasification model could be used for the development of a model-based control strategy in order to increase the performance of the small-scale gasification system. To assess the general operational behaviour of the whole gasification system an experimental one-week-long test run has been performed by BIOENERGY 2020+ and the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano as round robin test. The plant has been tested under different operating conditions, in particular, varying the load of the engine and the moisture content of the feedstock. The outcomes shown in the present work provide a unique indication about the behaviour of a small-scale fix-bed gasifier working in conditions different from the nominal ones.

Other Publications | 2019

ÖKO-OPT-QUART - Workshop

Ökonomisch optimiertes Regelungs- und Betriebsverhalten komplexer Energieverbünde zukünftiger Stadtquartiere

Moser A, Muschick D, Gölles M, Mach T, Schranzhofer H, Nageler P, Lerch W, Leusbrock I, Tugores C. ÖKO-OPT-QUART: Ökonomisch optimiertes Regelungs- und Betriebsverhalten komplexer Energieverbünde zukünftiger Stadtquartiere. Workshop im Rahmen des FFG-Projekts ÖKO-OPT-QUART (3. Ausschreibung "Stadt der Zukunft") am 25.01.2019.

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Workshop of the research project ÖKO-OPT-QUART (Ökonomisch optimiertes Regelungs- und Betriebsverhalten komplexer Energieverbünde zukünftiger Stadtquartiere)

Reports | 2019

ÖKO-OPT-QUART Ökonomisch optimiertes Regelungs- und Betriebsverhalten komplexer Energieverbünde zukünftiger Stadtquartiere

Endbericht

Moser A, Muschick D, Gölles M, Mach T, Schranzhofer H, Leusbrock I, Ribas Tugores C. ÖKO-OPT-QUART Ökonomisch optimiertes Regelungs- und Betriebsverhalten komplexer Energieverbünde zukünftiger Stadtquartiere. Berichte aus Energie- und Umweltforschung. 2019.

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Other Publications | 2019

ÖKO-OPT-QUART Leitfaden

Richtlinien, Methoden und Hinweise zur Vorgehensweise bei der Planung und Implementierung von modellprädiktiven Regelungen für komplexe vernetzte Energiesystemen in zukünftigen Stadtquartieren

Moser A, Muschick D, Gölles M. ÖKO-OPT-QUART Leitfaden. Richtlinien, Methoden und Hinweise zur Vorgehensweise bei der Planung und Implementierung von modellprädiktiven Regelungen für komplexe vernetzte Energiesystemen in zukünftigen Stadtquartieren.

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Other Publications | 2019

Betrieb bei maximaler Effizienz und minimalen Emissionen durch CO-lambda-Optimierung

Zemann C, Hammer F, Gölles M. Betrieb bei maximaler Effizienz und minimalen Emissionen durch CO-lambda-Optimierung. Heizwerke-Betreibertag 2019. October 2019.

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Other Publications | 2019

Betrieb bei maximaler Effizienz und minimalen Emissionen durch CO-Lambda-Optimierung

Zemann C, Hammer F. Betrieb bei maximaler Effizienz und minimalen Emissionen durch CO-Lambda-Optimierung. Heizwerke-Betreibertag 2019, Sieggraben, 07. Oktober 2019 (oral presentation).

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Reports | 2019

CO-Lambda optimization

Operation of biomass boilers at maximum efficiency and with complete combustion

Zemann C, Gölles M. CO-Lambda optimization - Operation of biomass boilers at maximum efficiency and with complete combustion. 2019.

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Reports | 2019

CO-Lambda-Optimierung

Betrieb von Feuerungen bei maximalem Wirkungsgrad und vollständigem Ausbrand

Zemann C, Gölles M. CO-Lambda-Optimierung - Betrieb von Feuerungen bei maximalem Wirkungsgrad und vollständigem Ausbrand. 2019.

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Peer reviewed papers | 2019

Co-Simulation of an Energy Management System for Future City District Energy Systems

Moser AGC, Muschick D, Gölles M, Lerch W, Schranzhofer H, Nageler PJ et al. Co-Simulation of an Energy Management System for Future City District Energy Systems. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Innovative Applied Energy. 2019.

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The continuous increase of (volatile) renewable energy production and the development of energy-efficient buildings have led to a transformation of city districts’ energy systems. Their complexity has increased significantly due to the coupling of the different energy sectors like heating, cooling and electricity. Such complex multi-energy systems can be operated more efficiently and reliably if knowledge of their specific components (in terms of mathematical models) as well as knowledge of weather forecasts is incorporated in a high-level controller, which is typically referred to as an Energy Management System (EMS). However, still little comprehensive information on the costs and the practical advantages of such systems is available. For this reason, a simulation environment to estimate the real costs and advantages of the use of such an EMS is required. Consequently, this work focuses on the development of an EMS for future city districts’ energy systems and the development of a co-simulation environment in order to demonstrate the benefits of the use of the developed EMS in comparison to a conventional control strategy. The co-simulation is implemented with the aid of the co-simulation platform Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) and consists of the following parts: a non-linear, thermoelectric model and a control block containing either the conventional control strategy or the EMS. The thermoelectric model is built up using the well-established simulation tools TRNSYS and IDA-ICE, simulating the energy hub of the city district and the districts’ buildings, respectively. The control block is simulated using MATLAB, where IBM ILOG CPLEX is used for solving the resulting mixed-integer linear program (MILP) of the EMS. Finally, an economic model for financial (and ecological) assessment of the operation is simulated with the aid of the software package Dymola. To put the developed EMS and the co-simulation into practise a case study based on a new city district in Graz, Austria, which is currently in the planning stage, is carried out. The integration of the responsible planners and investors in the modelling process guarantees the models’ practical applicability. In the case study the performance of the originally planned conventional control strategy is compared with the performance of the developed EMS using annual simulations with a simulation time step of 1 minute, and a 24 hour prediction horizon and a 15 minute time step for the EMS. For a more robust and realistic comparison both control strategies are simulated for different scenarios considering current and future (2060) climate conditions, medium and high energy demands (load), ideal and real load prediction methods and varying import prices for electricity from the electricity grid. The results show that the use of the developed EMS strategy results in reduced annual total costs (considering operational and investment costs of additionally suggested distributed energy resources) in comparison to the conventional control strategy. Furthermore, the annual CO2-emissions could be reduced by increasing the self-consumption of the installed (renewable) energy resources and thus decreasing the necessary energy imports from the electricity and the heating grid.

Conference presentations and posters | 2019

Co-Simulation of an Energy Management System for Future City District Energy Systems (Presentation)

Moser AGC, Muschick D, Gölles M, Lerch W, Schranzhofer H, Nageler PJ et al. Co-Simulation of an Energy Management System for Future City District Energy Systems. International Conference on Innovative Applied Energy. 2019. (Oral presentation, 15.03.2019.)

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Slides of the talk "Co-Simulation of an Energy Management System for Future City District Energy Systems"

Other papers | 2019

Evaluation of the Operational Behaviour of Fixed-bed Biomass Gasifiers - A Novel Approach for Steady-state Analysis

Hollenstein C, Zemann C, Antolini D, Patuzzi F, Martini S, Baratieri M, Gölles M. Evaluation of the Operational Behaviour of Fixed-bed Biomass Gasifiers - A Novel Approach for Steady-state Analysis. Proceedings of the 27th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, Vols. 27-30 May 2019, pp. 849-860, 2019.

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Assessing the operational behaviour of biomass gasification systems is a crucial basis for further improvements in terms of operational behaviour and robustness in order to increase the technologies’ operational and economic viability. However, in most fixed-bed biomass gasification systems not all parameters required for the assessment can be measured directly. Typically, unknown parameters are determined by using as many balance equations as parameters have to be determined neglecting the additional information provided by other available but not chosen balance equations. Thus, these approaches do not incorporate all measurement data available resulting in a lack of reliability in their results. A detailed analysis of these approaches emphasises that even small deviations in the measurement data can lead to significant deviations in the calculated parameters, demonstrating that individual choices of equations can be highly sensitive regarding measurement uncertainties.

Therefore, an adjusted weighted least squares approach is developed utilizing an overdetermined system of equations incorporating all balance equations simultaneously. Thus, all measurement data available is taken into account, minimizing the influences of measurement uncertainties on the determined parameters. A comprehensive analysis shows that this approach is less sensitive to measurement uncertainties, allowing for a more reliable and accurate assessment of fixed-bed biomass gasifiers.

Keywords: fixed-bed, gasification, mass balance, performance assessment

Other papers | 2019

Increased economic efficiency of dual fluidized bed plants via model-based control

Nigitz T, Gölles M, Aichernig C, Schneider S, Hofbauer H, Horn M. Increased economic efficiency of dual fluidized bed plants via model-based control. In 27th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition. 2019. p. 533 - 538 https://doi.org/10.5071/27thEUBCE2019-2BO.6.5

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Sustainable technologies can hardly compete with fossil-based technologies in terms of economic efficiency. One sustainable technology with special relevance due to its wide range of application and industrial readiness is biomass gasification using a dual fluidized bed (DFB). The economic challenges of a DFB gasification plant are addressed without constructional measures by adapting a current control strategy. This paper proposes a model-based control strategy aiming for increased economic efficiency of a DFB gasification plant considering exemplarily the “HGA Senden” in Ulm, Germany. A process analysis reveals high potential for improvement at the current control strategy for the synchronization of product gas production and utilization. A significant surplus of product gas is burned in an auxiliary boiler just for synchronization, and regular manual adjustments by the plant operators at the fuel feed are necessary. The model-based control strategy synchronizes by actuating the auxiliary boiler and the fuel feed simultaneously. The model-based control strategy is experimentally validated for over one month at the “HGA Senden” proofing a significant increase in economic efficiency. So, the economic efficiency of this technology for the sustainable production of energy and products is increased by model-based control.

Reports | 2019

Langzeitvalidierung eines neuen Ansatzes zur CO-Lambda-Optimierung

Zemann C, Gölles M. Langzeitvalidierung eines neuen Ansatzes zur CO-Lambda-Optimierung. 2019.

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Peer reviewed papers | 2019

NPK 2.0: Introducing tensor decompositions to the kinetic analysis of gas–solid reactions

Birkelbach F, Deutsch M, Flegkas S, Winter F, Werner A. NPK 2.0: Introducing tensor decompositions to the kinetic analysis of gas–solid reactions. Int J Chem Kinet. 2019;1–11.

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A method for deriving kinetic models of gas–solid reactions for reactor and process design is presented. It is based on the nonparametric kinetics (NPK) method and resolves many of its shortcomings by applying tensor rank‐1 approximation methods. With this method, it is possible to derive kinetic models based on the general kinetic equation from any combination of experiments without additional a priori assumptions. The most notable improvements over the original method are that it is computationally much simpler and that it is not limited to two variables. Two algorithms for computing the rank‐1 approximation as well as a tailored initialization method are presented, and their performance is assessed. Formulae for the variance estimation of the solution values are derived to improve the accuracy of the model identification and to provide a tool for diagnosing the quality of the kinetic model. The methods effectiveness and performance are assessed by applying it to a simulated data set. A Matlab implementation is available as Supporting Information.

Peer reviewed papers | 2019

Overview obstacle maps for obstacle‐aware navigation of autonomous drones

Pestana J, Maurer M, Muschick D, Hofer M, Fraundorfer F. Overview obstacle maps for obstacle-aware navigation of autonomous drones. Journal of Field Robotics 2019.

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Achieving the autonomous deployment of aerial robots in unknown outdoor environments using only onboard computation is a challenging task. In this study, we have developed a solution to demonstrate the feasibility of autonomously deploying drones in unknown outdoor environments, with the main capability of providing an obstacle map of the area of interest in a short period of time. We focus on use cases where no obstacle maps are available beforehand, for instance, in search and rescue scenarios, and on increasing the autonomy of drones in such situations. Our vision‐based mapping approach consists of two separate steps. First, the drone performs an overview flight at a safe altitude acquiring overlapping nadir images, while creating a high‐quality sparse map of the environment by using a state‐of‐the‐art photogrammetry method. Second, this map is georeferenced, densified by fitting a mesh model and converted into an Octomap obstacle map, which can be continuously updated while performing a task of interest near the ground or in the vicinity of objects. The generation of the overview obstacle map is performed in almost real time on the onboard computer of the drone, a map of size urn:x-wiley:15564959:media:rob21863:rob21863-math-0001 is created in urn:x-wiley:15564959:media:rob21863:rob21863-math-0002, therefore, with enough time remaining for the drone to execute other tasks inside the area of interest during the same flight. We evaluate quantitatively the accuracy of the acquired map and the characteristics of the planned trajectories. We further demonstrate experimentally the safe navigation of the drone in an area mapped with our proposed approach.

Other Publications | 2019

Primäre und sekundäre Verbesserungen an einem Biomassekessel für Agrarbrennstoffe

Zemann C, Kelz J, Muschick D, Retschitzegger S, Gölles M. Primäre und sekundäre Verbesserungen an einem Biomassekessel für Agrarbrennstoffe. 10. Fachgespräch: Partikelabscheider in häuslichen Feuerungen. 20. März 2019 (2019). [online]. (Tagungsreader, 15). Leipzig: DBFZ. 168 S.

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ie Biomasseverbrennung spielt eine zentrale Rolle bei der Bereitstellung von Wärme aus erneuerbaren Energieträgern. Konventionelle Biomasse-Brennstoffe werden jedoch aufgrund einer steigenden Anzahl stofflicher Verwertungsmöglichkeiten, wie z.B. der Umwandlung in Chemikalien, teurer und schwieriger zugänglich. Agrarbrennstoffe, die bisher nur selten oder gar nicht in Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen eingesetzt wurden, stellen eine vielversprechende Alternative zu konventionellen Brennstoffen dar. Diese Agrarbrennstoffe, wie zum Beispiel Kurzumtrieb, Maisspindeln oder Stroh sind kostengünstig und in ausreichender Menge vorhanden. Der Einsatz von Agrarbrennstoffen in konventionellen Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen ist jedoch aufgrund stark variierender Brennstoffeigenschaften mit erhöhten Anforderungen an das Verbrennungssystem verbunden. Erhöhte N, S, Cl, Alkalimetall- und Aschegehalte sowie niedrigere Aschenschmelzpunkte können zu aschebedingten Problemen (Ascheschmelze, Ascheablagerung und Korrosion) sowie erhöhten Konzentrationen von gasförmigen (CO, NOx, HCl und SOx) und partikelförmigen Emissionen bei der Verbrennung führen.

Ziel der in diesem Beitrag präsentierten Arbeiten war die Erhöhung die Brennstoffflexibilität einer handelsüblichen Biomasse-Kleinfeuerung um damit eine Verbrennung von Agrarbrennstoffen mit niedrigen Schadstoffemissionen und einem hohen Wirkungsgrad zu ermöglichen. Hierzu wurde eine modellbasierte Regelung entwickelt, welche insbesondere eine gezielte Einstellung des Luftverhältnisses in der Primärverbrennungszone ermöglicht und damit das Risiko der Ascheschmelze reduziert und Schadstoffmissionen verringert. Soft-Sensoren bestimmen relevante Brennstoffeigenschaften während des Betriebs, welche von der modellbasierten Regelung zur automatischen Anpassung an geänderte Brennstoffeigenschaften genutzt werden. Die modellbasierte Regelung wurde um eine CO-lambda-Optimierung ergänzt, welche auf Basis von Messwerten des Restsauerstoffgehalts und der CO-Emissionen den Wirkungsgrad der Verbrennung maximiert und gleichzeitig die Schadstoffemissionen verringert. Zur weiteren Verringerung von partikelförmigen Schadstoffemissionen wurde ein am Markt verfügbarer Elektrofilter adaptiert und nach dem Wärmeübertrager der Biomasse-Kleinfeuerung angebracht.

Dieses Verbrennungssystem wurde durch umfassende Testläufe mit begleitenden Emissionsmessungen sowie Brennstoff-, Staub- und Ascheanalysen bewertet. Der Einsatz der modellbasierten Regelung führte zu einem stabileren Betrieb bei allen Leistungen und für alle Brennstoffe. Der Elektrofilter zeigte sehr zufriedenstellende Abscheidegrade für alle untersuchten Brennstoffe und Anlagenleistungen. Dadurch konnte die Brennstoffflexibilität der handelsüblichen Biomasse-Kleinfeuerung erhöht und die Verbrennung von Agrarbrennstoffen ermöglicht werden.

 

Other Publications | 2019

Regelungstechnische Maßnahmen zur Verringerung der Schadstoffemissionen automatisch beschickter Biomassekleinfeuerungen

Zemann C, Gölles M. Regelungstechnische Maßnahmen zur Verringerung der Schadstoffemissionen automatisch beschickter Biomassekleinfeuerungen. 8. Fachkolloquium: Innovative und selbstüberwachende Verbrennungs- und Abgasbehandlungstechnologien zum Einsatz in Biomassefeuerungen. May 2019

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Conference presentations and posters | 2019

Smart Logwood Boiler - A holistic approach for improving the efficiency of residential heating systems. 27th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition.

Zemann C, Deutsch M, Zlabinger S, Hofmeister G, Gölles M, Horn M. Smart Logwood Boiler - A holistic approach for improving the efficiency of residential heating systems. 27th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition. Lisbon. 2019. (Oral presentation, 27.05.2019).

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Conference presentations and posters | 2019

Smart Logwood Boiler – A holistic approach for improving the efficiency of residential heating systems

Zemann C, Deutsch M, Zlabinger S, Hofmeister G, Gölles M, Horn M. Smart Logwood Boiler – A holistic approach for improving the efficiency of residential heating systems. 27th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (Oral Presentation). May 2019.

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Reports | 2019

Synchronization of the gas production and utilization rates of a solid-to-gas process and a downstream gas-to-X process

Nigitz T, Gölles M, Aichernig C, Hofbauer H, Horn, M. Synchronization of the gas production and utilization rates of a solid-to-gas process and a downstream gas-to-X process. 21. Styrian Workshop on Automatic Control. 10 September 2019. Leitring/Wagna, Austria. (oral presentation)

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Peer reviewed papers | 2018

A higher-order generalization of the NPK-method.

Birkelbach F, Deutsch M, Flegkas S, Winter F, Werner A. A higher-order generalization of the NPK-method. Thermochimica Acta, 9 January 2018;661:27-33.

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A novel algorithm to identify the full kinetic model of solid state reactions according to the General Kinetic Equation is presented. It is a higher-order generalization of the Non-Parametric Kinetics method (NPK-method) and allows for the simultaneous identification of the conversion, temperature and pressure dependency from any combination of measurements. As a model-free identification method, it does not rely on a-priori assumptions about the kinetic model. The result vectors can be used to identify the kinetic parameters by means of model fitting for each variable independently.

The steps of the algorithm are described and its effectiveness is demonstrated by applying it to simulated datasets. The kinetic parameters could be recovered very accurately from the test data, also in the presence of noise.

Overall the higher order NPK-method is a very promising approach to derive kinetic models from experimental data with a minimum of a-priori assumptions about the reaction.

Conference presentations and posters | 2018

Adaptive forecasting methods for the prediction of future solar yield of solar thermal plants and heat demand of consumers

Unterberger V, Nigitz T, Luzzu M, Innerhofer P, Muschick D, Gölles M. Adaptive forecasting methods for the prediction of future solar yield of solar thermal plants and heat demand of consumers. 5th International Solar District Heating Conference SDH. Graz, Austria: 2018.

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