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Other Presentations | 2019

Optimization Based Design and Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Microgrids

Stalder M, Optimization Based Design and Control of Distributed Energy Resources and Microgrids. LetsCluster, Lighthouse Summit in the heart of Europe: Smart Energy Generation - Management - Optimization, Smart Home / Building, Interface to the Smart Grid, Microgrids, Electric Grid of the Future, Sector Linking, Graz, Österreich, 25 - 27 März 2019

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2019

Overview obstacle maps for obstacle‐aware navigation of autonomous drones

Pestana J, Maurer M, Muschick D, Hofer M, Fraundorfer F. Overview obstacle maps for obstacle-aware navigation of autonomous drones. Journal of Field Robotics 2019.

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Achieving the autonomous deployment of aerial robots in unknown outdoor environments using only onboard computation is a challenging task. In this study, we have developed a solution to demonstrate the feasibility of autonomously deploying drones in unknown outdoor environments, with the main capability of providing an obstacle map of the area of interest in a short period of time. We focus on use cases where no obstacle maps are available beforehand, for instance, in search and rescue scenarios, and on increasing the autonomy of drones in such situations. Our vision‐based mapping approach consists of two separate steps. First, the drone performs an overview flight at a safe altitude acquiring overlapping nadir images, while creating a high‐quality sparse map of the environment by using a state‐of‐the‐art photogrammetry method. Second, this map is georeferenced, densified by fitting a mesh model and converted into an Octomap obstacle map, which can be continuously updated while performing a task of interest near the ground or in the vicinity of objects. The generation of the overview obstacle map is performed in almost real time on the onboard computer of the drone, a map of size urn:x-wiley:15564959:media:rob21863:rob21863-math-0001 is created in urn:x-wiley:15564959:media:rob21863:rob21863-math-0002, therefore, with enough time remaining for the drone to execute other tasks inside the area of interest during the same flight. We evaluate quantitatively the accuracy of the acquired map and the characteristics of the planned trajectories. We further demonstrate experimentally the safe navigation of the drone in an area mapped with our proposed approach.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2019

Photoautotrophic production of poly-hydroxybutyrate – First detailed cost estimations

Panuschka S, Drosg B, Ellersdorfer M, Meixner K, Fritz I. Photoautotrophic production of poly-hydroxybutyrate – First detailed cost estimations. Algal Research 2019.41:101558.

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Political, economic and ecological reasons have recently been leading to efforts to replace fossil hydrocarbons and their products in a sustainable way. In order to replace fossil-based polymers, photoautotrophically produced polyhydroxybutryrates (PHBs), which are intracellular carbon storage products of nutrient-deprived microorganisms, seem to be a promising, biobased and biodegradable alternative. Although laboratory and pilot scale experiments have already been performed, no economic evaluation has been carried out so far. Consequently, valid claims on PHB production costs and the influence of different parameters, such as intracellular PHB-content, choice of cultivation system or location, cannot be made. In this study potential demonstration plants, equipped with different photoautotrophic cultivation systems and located at two sites, were designed to identify key parameters for a successful economic realization and implementation. Material and energy balances were determined to reveal specific PHB production costs for four different scenarios. Raw material and operating supply costs, expenditures for plant construction and operation as well as product amounts were determined using literature data for specified results from laboratory and pilot scale experiments. The lowest calculated PHB production price (24 € kg−1) accomplished in a thin-layer-system plant located in Southern Europe with 60% PHB-content of the produced biomass is significantly higher than the current market price of heterotrophically produced PHB. The most important cost factors in all scenarios are cultivation and harvesting costs accounting for 62 to 72% of the total specific production costs, followed by maintenance costs with a cost share of 11 to 14%. Therefore, the choice of a suitable cultivation system is the key driving factor for an economic PHB-production due to the currently high investment costs for photosynthetic biomass production systems. Specific production costs for a Southern compared to a Central European location amount to almost half of the costs.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2019

Planning and implementation of bankable microgrids

Stadler M, Nasle A. Planning and implementation of bankable microgrids. The Electricity Journal 2019. 32:24-29.

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Currently, many Microgrid projects remain financially uncertain and not bankable for institutional investors due to major challenges in existing planning and design methods that require multiple, complex steps and software tools.

Existing techniques treat every Microgrid project as a unique system, resulting in expensive, non-standardized approaches and implementations which cannot be compared. That is, it is not possible to correlate the results from different planning methods performed by different project developers and/or engineering companies.

This very expensive individual process cannot guarantee financial revenue streams, cannot be reliably audited, impedes pooling of multiple Microgrid projects into a financial asset class, nor does it allow for wide-spread and attractive Microgrid and Distributed Energy Resource projects deployment.

Thus, a reliable, integrated, and streamlined process is needed that guides the Microgrid developer and engineer through conceptual design, engineering, detailed electrical design, implementation, and operation in a standardized and data driven approach, creating reliable results and financial indicators that can be audited and repeated by investors and financers.

This article describes the steps and methods involved in creating bankable Microgrids by relying on an integrated Microgrid planning software approach that unifies proven technologies and tested planning methods, researched and developed by the United States National Laboratory System as well as the US Department of Energy, to reduce design times.


Conference contributions | 2019

Practical example: manufacturers’ data vs data from ecoinvent database – a comparison of LCI and LCA

Rixrath D, Wartha C, Enigl M, Strasser C, Piringer G. Practical example: manufacturers’ data vs data from ecoinvent database – a comparison of LCI and LCA. 15. Minisymposium Verfahrenstechnik MU Leoben (Poster). 2019.

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The aim of this work is to analyze biogenic residues and to test
them for their suitability as feedstocks for hydrothermal
liquefaction (HTL). Green waste, sewage sludge, micelles,
leftovers and organic waste were analyzed and tested. All
experiments were carried out in an autoclave at 350 °C with a
holding time of 15 minutes under an inert argon atmosphere. After
the experiments the yields of the gas, aqueous, biocrude and solid
phase were determined together with lipid contents, heating values
and elemental composition of the raw materials and biocrude
samples. Biocrude yields are of specific interest for a future
commercial use of the HTL-process. In this study we achieved
biocrude yields between 9.43% (green waste) and 34.28%
(leftovers).


Other Presentations | 2019

Primäre und sekundäre Verbesserungen an einem Biomassekessel für Agrarbrennstoffe

Zemann C, Kelz J, Muschick D, Retschitzegger S, Gölles M. Primäre und sekundäre Verbesserungen an einem Biomassekessel für Agrarbrennstoffe. 10. Fachgespräch: Partikelabscheider in häuslichen Feuerungen. 20. März 2019 (2019). [online]. (Tagungsreader, 15). Leipzig: DBFZ. 168 S.

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ie Biomasseverbrennung spielt eine zentrale Rolle bei der Bereitstellung von Wärme aus erneuerbaren Energieträgern. Konventionelle Biomasse-Brennstoffe werden jedoch aufgrund einer steigenden Anzahl stofflicher Verwertungsmöglichkeiten, wie z.B. der Umwandlung in Chemikalien, teurer und schwieriger zugänglich. Agrarbrennstoffe, die bisher nur selten oder gar nicht in Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen eingesetzt wurden, stellen eine vielversprechende Alternative zu konventionellen Brennstoffen dar. Diese Agrarbrennstoffe, wie zum Beispiel Kurzumtrieb, Maisspindeln oder Stroh sind kostengünstig und in ausreichender Menge vorhanden. Der Einsatz von Agrarbrennstoffen in konventionellen Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen ist jedoch aufgrund stark variierender Brennstoffeigenschaften mit erhöhten Anforderungen an das Verbrennungssystem verbunden. Erhöhte N, S, Cl, Alkalimetall- und Aschegehalte sowie niedrigere Aschenschmelzpunkte können zu aschebedingten Problemen (Ascheschmelze, Ascheablagerung und Korrosion) sowie erhöhten Konzentrationen von gasförmigen (CO, NOx, HCl und SOx) und partikelförmigen Emissionen bei der Verbrennung führen.

Ziel der in diesem Beitrag präsentierten Arbeiten war die Erhöhung die Brennstoffflexibilität einer handelsüblichen Biomasse-Kleinfeuerung um damit eine Verbrennung von Agrarbrennstoffen mit niedrigen Schadstoffemissionen und einem hohen Wirkungsgrad zu ermöglichen. Hierzu wurde eine modellbasierte Regelung entwickelt, welche insbesondere eine gezielte Einstellung des Luftverhältnisses in der Primärverbrennungszone ermöglicht und damit das Risiko der Ascheschmelze reduziert und Schadstoffmissionen verringert. Soft-Sensoren bestimmen relevante Brennstoffeigenschaften während des Betriebs, welche von der modellbasierten Regelung zur automatischen Anpassung an geänderte Brennstoffeigenschaften genutzt werden. Die modellbasierte Regelung wurde um eine CO-lambda-Optimierung ergänzt, welche auf Basis von Messwerten des Restsauerstoffgehalts und der CO-Emissionen den Wirkungsgrad der Verbrennung maximiert und gleichzeitig die Schadstoffemissionen verringert. Zur weiteren Verringerung von partikelförmigen Schadstoffemissionen wurde ein am Markt verfügbarer Elektrofilter adaptiert und nach dem Wärmeübertrager der Biomasse-Kleinfeuerung angebracht.

Dieses Verbrennungssystem wurde durch umfassende Testläufe mit begleitenden Emissionsmessungen sowie Brennstoff-, Staub- und Ascheanalysen bewertet. Der Einsatz der modellbasierten Regelung führte zu einem stabileren Betrieb bei allen Leistungen und für alle Brennstoffe. Der Elektrofilter zeigte sehr zufriedenstellende Abscheidegrade für alle untersuchten Brennstoffe und Anlagenleistungen. Dadurch konnte die Brennstoffflexibilität der handelsüblichen Biomasse-Kleinfeuerung erhöht und die Verbrennung von Agrarbrennstoffen ermöglicht werden.

 


Scientific Journals | 2019

Real-life emission factor assessment for biomass heating appliances at a field measurement campaign in Styria, Austria

Sturmlechner R, Schmidl C, Carlon E, Reichert G, Stressler H, Klauser F, Kelz J, Schwabl M, Kirchsteiger B, Kasper-Giebl A, Höftberger E, Haslinger W. Real-life emission factor assessment for biomass heating appliances at a field measurement campaign in Styria, Austria. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment 2019.236:221-231

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Biomass combustion is a major contributor to ambient air pollution. Thus, knowing the real-life emissions of biomass heating systems is crucial. Within the project Clean Air by biomass a field measurement campaign was conducted. 15 biomass heating appliances were tested in households at the end user according to their usual operation. Emission factors for gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as for the genotoxic and carcinogenic substance benzo(a)pyrene, were evaluated and compared to current proposed European and Austrian emission factors used for emission inventories. Moreover, the shares of particles and benzo(a)pyrene in hot and cooled flue gas were determined. Results showed a high variability of emissions in the field. Highest values and ranges occurred for room heaters (TSPtotal: 226 mg/MJ). Biomass boilers showed clearly lower emission factors (TSPtotal: 184 mg/MJ) in the field than room heaters and also than the proposed European and Austrian emission factors, in many cases. Emission factors for tiled stoves showed a similar trend (TSPtotal: 67 mg/MJ). The share of condensable particles in the flue gas was remarkable. Especially benzo(a)pyrene was found mostly in the condensable fraction of the particles.


Conference contributions | 2019

Reduction of ash-realted problems in large-scale biomass combustion systems via resource efficient low-cost fuel additives

Sommersacher P, Kienzl N, Retschitzegger S. Reduction of ash-realted problems in large-scale biomass combustion systems via resource efficient low-cost fuel additives. 27th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (Poster). 2019.

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The incineration of waste wood is very often associated with ash-related problems (deposits, slagging and corrosion). This leads to short maintenance intervals, which result in significant power generation losses and high downtime costs. To avoid these problems, additives can be used, with particularly cost-effective additives being of great interest. Based on pre-evaluations, the addition of 2% gypsum and 3% coal fly ash was recommended, since an improved ash melting behaviour and reduced risk for high-temperature corrosion can be expected with addition of gypsum and coal fly ash. These additives with the recommended mixing rates were then investigated in a large-scale plant. Extensive investigations were carried out without additive (as a reference), and with the additives focusing on dust formation (aerosols and total dust), deposit formation and the corrosion behaviour of superheaters. These investigations were accompanied by fuel and ash analyses (grate, cyclone and filter). The addition of additives increased the amount of total dust in the flue gas up to 195% and 262% for gypsum and coal fly ash respectively. The chemical analysis of the total dust showed an enrichment of refectory species like Al for coal fly ash and Ca and Mg for gypsum which can positively influence the slagging behaviour. Aerosol measurements showed that the addition of coal fly ash minimised the amount of fine particulate matter, as less alkali metals (K and Na) were released into the gas phase. Gypsum addition increases the SO2 concentrations in the gas phase due to the decomposition of gypsum, as in the combustion chamber about 900°C are present. Due to the preferred sulphation reactions (binding of S to alkali metals) less Cl is bound to alkali metals and therefore the Cl concentrations in the aerosols were lower compared to the reference case. This effect was also found in the deposits sampled at the position of the superheater. Based on the chemical composition of deposits the molar 2S/Cl ratios were determined, which can be used to predict the risk for high temperature corrosion. The analysis data showed that an improvement concerning the high temperature corrosion risk is possible by adding coal fly ash, whereas a significant improvement in case of gypsum additions seems very likely. The measurements carried out so far showed the influence (built-up rate, chemical composition etc.) of the additive application on ash fractions, deposits and dusts. By taking a closer look at the change in chemical compositions of dusts and deposits, additives with an appropriate additivation ratio can be suggested. In case of coal fly ash 3% and in case of gypsum 1% additive related to dry fuel seems to be adequate additive ratios to positively influence the risk of high temperature corrosion and reduce the slagging behaviour.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2019

Single large wood log conversion in a stove: Experiments and modelling

Anca-Couce A, Caposciutti G, Gruber T, Kelz J, Bauer T, Hochenauer C, Scharler R. Single large wood log conversion in a stove: Experiments and modelling. Renewable Energy 2019.143:890-897.

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Natural draft wood log stoves for residential bioheat production are very popular due to the low fuel costs, the ecological aspect of a renewable energy source and the visual appeal of the flame. However, they have rather high pollutant emissions, specially of unburnt products. The description of large wood logs conversion in stoves needs to be improved to allow a process optimization which can reduce these emissions. The transient conversion of a single wood log in a stove is experimentally investigated with test runs quenching the log after defined time intervals and measuring the flue gas composition and temperatures in the log and stove. The experiments have been described with a volumetric single particle model, which predicts with good accuracy the log conversion until a time of around 30 min, when pyrolysis is almost ending. At that point, log fragmentation takes place and smaller fragments are detached from the log falling onto the bed of embers. Despite the increase in external surface area, char oxidation takes place at a moderate rate. This last stage of wood log conversion in a stove is the most challenging to model. Finally, preliminary recommendations are provided for reducing CO emissions in wood log stoves.


Conference contributions | 2019

Smart Logwood Boiler - A holistic approach for improving the efficiency of residential heating systems. 27th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition.

Zemann C, Deutsch M, Zlabinger S, Hofmeister G, Gölles M, Horn M. Smart Logwood Boiler - A holistic approach for improving the efficiency of residential heating systems. 27th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition. Lisbon. 2019. (Oral presentation, 27.05.2019).

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Conference contributions | 2019

Smart Logwood Boiler – A holistic approach for improving the efficiency of residential heating systems

Zemann C, Deutsch M, Zlabinger S, Hofmeister G, Gölles M, Horn M. Smart Logwood Boiler – A holistic approach for improving the efficiency of residential heating systems. 27th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (Oral Presentation). May 2019.

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Conference contributions | 2019

Spectroscopic in situ methods for the evaluation of the active centers on ash-layered bed materials from gasification in a fluidized bed reactor

Chlebda D, Aziaba K, Janisch D, Kuba M, Hofbauer H, Łojewska J. Spectroscopic in situ methods for the evaluation of the active centers on ash-layered bed materials from gasification in a fluidized bed reactor. ICPS 2019

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Technical Reports | 2019

Synchronization of the gas production and utilization rates of a solid-to-gas process and a downstream gas-to-X process

Nigitz T, Gölles M, Aichernig C, Hofbauer H, Horn, M. Synchronization of the gas production and utilization rates of a solid-to-gas process and a downstream gas-to-X process. 21. Styrian Workshop on Automatic Control. 10 September 2019. Leitring/Wagna, Austria. (oral presentation)

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Conference contributions | 2019

Technology mapping of market-available small-scale combustion appliances

Feldmeier S, Wopienka E, Schwarz M, Pfeifer C. Technology mapping of market-available small-scale combustion appliances. 27th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (Poster). 2019.

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A broad range of different biomass combustion appliances dedicated to domestic heating is available on the market. Depending on the technology the impact of varying properties of biomass fuels on slag formation and emission release may vary. Aspects as the design of the grate section and the selection of individual boiler components as well as operational settings determine the applicability of biomass fuels. Apart from fuel properties also the fuel load on the grate, residence time, air distribution and geometry of grate and combustion chamber affect the degree of slag formation and emission release. Technology indexes determined by means of constructional measures enable a systematic comparison and – in a further step – an assessment of combustion appliances. In this work specific technology indexes were specified and applied to compare technological aspects, which will prospectively allow investigating the technological influence on the combustion performance.


Conference contributions | 2019

Thermal Trouble: Challenges in Optimization and Evaluation of Thermal Energy Systems

Lichtenegger K, Unterberger V, Stadler M, Zellinger M, Carreras F, Moser A. Thermal Trouble: Challenges in Optimization and Evaluation of Thermal Energy Systems. IAPE 2019 : International Conference on Innovative Applied Energy (oral presentation). March 2019.

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Conference contributions | 2019

Time-dependent catalytic activation of inactive k-feldspar by layer formation during fluidized bed conversion with residual fuels

Wagner C, Hammerl C, Kuba M, Hofbauer H. Time-dependent catalytic activation of inactive k-feldspar by layer formation during fluidized bed conversion with residual fuels. 27th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (Poster). May 2019.

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Olivine is currently used as bed material in dual fluidized bed steam gasification due to its catalytic activity towards the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction and tar reforming. However, olivine contains traces of heavy metals which necessitate an expensive disposal of the accruing ash. The study of alternative bed materials for DFB steam gasification is therefore of major importance. The activity of a bed material is one important factor when classifying its suitability. Several alternative bed materials like quartz and K-feldspar are non-active when fresh but become activated during operation by interaction with the ash by forming layers. The focus of this work was therefore to quantify the initial activation of K-feldspar over the first operational hours as exemplary inactive bed material. Bed material samples from fluidized bed combustion were collected during operation. The fuels used were bark, chicken manure and a bark/chicken manure mixture. The obtained samples were sieved to 200 – 250 µm and tested in a micro-scale test-rig regarding the WGS reaction. A time-dependent activation of K-feldspar was observed marking a first step in better understanding the activation of bed materials.


Conference contributions | 2019

Towards the in house production of enzymes using processing waste

Weiss R, Nyanhongo G, Ortner M, Guebitz G.Towards the in house production of enzymes using processing waste. 15th International Conference on Renewable Resources and Biorefineries, Toulouse, FRANCE. June 2019.

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Other Presentations | 2018

Regelung verfahrens- und energietechnischer Anlagen. Zukünftige Möglichkeiten durch zunehmende Digitalisierung.

Gölles M. Regelung verfahrens- und energietechnischer Anlagen. Zukünftige Möglichkeiten durch zunehmende Digitalisierung. 6. Fachkolloquium, Effiziente und schadstoffarme Verbrennungstechnologien für Biomasse. Präseantion. 10.07.2018.

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Other Publications | 2018

A flexible low cost PV/EV microgrid controller concept based on a Raspberry Pi

Stadler M. A flexible low cost PV/EV microgrid controller concept based on a Raspberry Pi. Working Paper, Center for Energy and innovative Technologies (CET) and Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH, June 2018.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2018

A higher-order generalization of the NPK-method.

Birkelbach F, Deutsch M, Flegkas S, Winter F, Werner A. A higher-order generalization of the NPK-method. Thermochimica Acta, 9 January 2018;661:27-33.

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A novel algorithm to identify the full kinetic model of solid state reactions according to the General Kinetic Equation is presented. It is a higher-order generalization of the Non-Parametric Kinetics method (NPK-method) and allows for the simultaneous identification of the conversion, temperature and pressure dependency from any combination of measurements. As a model-free identification method, it does not rely on a-priori assumptions about the kinetic model. The result vectors can be used to identify the kinetic parameters by means of model fitting for each variable independently.

The steps of the algorithm are described and its effectiveness is demonstrated by applying it to simulated datasets. The kinetic parameters could be recovered very accurately from the test data, also in the presence of noise.

Overall the higher order NPK-method is a very promising approach to derive kinetic models from experimental data with a minimum of a-priori assumptions about the reaction.


Conference contributions | 2018

Adaptive forecasting methods for the prediction of future solar yield of solar thermal plants and heat demand of consumers

Unterberger V, Nigitz T, Luzzu M, Innerhofer P, Muschick D, Gölles M. Adaptive forecasting methods for the prediction of future solar yield of solar thermal plants and heat demand of consumers. 5th International Solar District Heating Conference SDH. Graz, Austria: 2018.

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Conference Papers | 2018

Adaptive Methods for Energy Forecasting of Production and Demand of Solar Assisted Heating Systems

Unterberger V, Nigitz T, Luzzu M, Muschick D, Gölles M. Adaptive Methods for Energy Forecasting of Production and Demand of Solar Assisted Heating Systems., Proceeding of Papers Vol1, p170-181 International conference on time series and forecasting, Granada, Spain, September 19-21, 2018.

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Scientific Journals | 2018

Adsorptive on-board desulfurization over multiple cycles for fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units operated by different types of fuels

Neubauer, R, Weinlaender C, Kienzl N, Bitschnau B, Schroettner H, Hochenauer C. Adsorptive on-board desulfurization over multiple cycles for fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units operated by different types of fuels. Journal of Power Sources. 1 May 2018, 385: 45-54.

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On-board desulfurization is essential to operate fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units (APU) with commercial fuels. In this work, both (i) on-board desulfurization and (ii) on-board regeneration performance of Ag-Al2O3 adsorbent is investigated in a comprehensive manner. The herein investigated regeneration strategy uses hot APU off-gas as the regeneration medium and requires no additional reagents, tanks, nor heat exchangers and thus has remarkable advantages in comparison to state-of-the-art regeneration strategies. The results for (i) show high desulfurization performance of Ag-Al2O3 under all relevant operating conditions and specify the influence of individual operation parameters and the combination of them, which have not yet been quantified. The system integrated regeneration strategy (ii) shows excellent regeneration performance recovering 100% of the initial adsorption capacity for all investigated types of fuels and sulfur heterocycles. Even the adsorption capacity of the most challenging dibenzothiophene in terms of regeneration is restored to 100% over 14 cycles of operation. Subsequent material analyses proved the thermal and chemical stability of all relevant adsorption sites under APU off-gas conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time 100% regeneration after adsorption of dibenzothiophene is reported over 14 cycles of operation for thermal regeneration in oxidizing atmospheres.


Conference Papers | 2018

Assessment of the Behaviour of a Commercial Gasification Plant During Load Modulation and Feedstock Moisture Variation: Preliminary results of the "Flexi-Fuel-Gas-Control" Project

Antolini D, Hollenstein C, Martini S, Patuzzi F, Zemann C, Felsberger W, Baratieri M, Gölles M. Assessment of the Behaviour of a Commercial Gasification Plant During Load Modulation and Feedstock Moisture Variation: Preliminary results of the "Flexi-Fuel-Gas-Control" Project. 7th International conference on Engineering for Waste and Biomass Valorisation. 2.-5. July 2018. Prague: Czech Republic.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2018

Catalytic Efficiency of Oxidizing Honeycomb Catalysts Integrated in Firewood Stoves Evaluated by a Novel Measuring Methodology under Real-Life Operating Conditions

Reichert G, Schmidl C, Haslinger W, Stressler H, Sturmlechner R, Schwabl M, Wöhler M, Hochenauer C. Catalytic Efficiency of Oxidizing Honeycomb Catalysts Integrated in Firewood Stoves Evaluated by a Novel Measuring Methodology under Real-Life Operating Conditions. Renewable Energy, March 2018;117:300-313.

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Catalytic systems integrated in firewood stoves represent a potential secondary measure for emission reduction. However, the evaluation of catalytic efficiency is challenging since measurements, especially for PM emissions, upstream an integrated catalyst are not possible. Therefore, a special test facility, called “DemoCat”, was constructed which enabled parallel measurements in catalytically treated and untreated flue gas. The catalytic efficiency for CO, OGC and PM emissions was investigated under real-life operating conditions including ignition and preheating. The results confirmed a significant emission reduction potential (CO: > 95%, OGC: > 60%, PM: ∼30%). The conversion rates of CO and OGC emissions correlated with the space velocity and the coated area of honeycomb carriers which represent key parameters for the integration design. A quick response of the catalytic effect of around 5–12 min after ignition was observed when reaching 250 °C flue gas temperature at the catalyst. Most effective CO and OGC emission conversion was evident during the start-up and burn-out phase of a firewood batch. This reveals an important synergy for primary optimization which focuses particularly on the stretched intermediate phase of a combustion batch. The catalytic effect on PM emissions, especially on chemical composition, needs further investigations.