Publication | Conference presentations and posters | Potentiale, Bioenergiesysteme, Logistik
Model-based control of absorption heat pumping systems
Staudt S, Unterberger V, Muschick D, Wernhart M, Rieberer R
Citation: Staudt S, Unterberger V, Muschick D, Wernhart M, Rieberer R. Model-based control of absorption heat pumping systems. 2022. Abstract from 22. Styrian Workshop on Automatic Control, Leitring/Wagna, Austria.
Absorption heat pumping systems (AHPSs, comprising absorption heat pumps and chillers) are devices that mainly use thermal energy instead of electricity to generate heating and cooling. This thermal energy can be provided by, e.g., waste heat or renewable energy sources such as solar energy, which allow AHPSs to contribute to ressource-efficient heating and cooling systems. Despite this benefit, AHPSs are still not a widespread technology. One reason for this is unsatisfactory controllability under varying operating conditions, which results in poor modulation and partial load capability. Emloying model-based control is a promising approach to address this issue, which will be the focus of this contribution.
First, a viable control-oriented model for AHPSs is developed. It is based on physical correlations to facilitate systematic adaptions to different scales and operating conditions and considers only the most relevant mass and energy stores to keep the model order at a minimum. The resulting model is mathematically simple but still has the structure of a nonlinear differential-algebraic system of equations. This is typical for models of thermo-chemical
processes, but is unfortunately not suitable for many control design methods. Therefore, linearization at an operating point is discussed to derive a model in linear state space representation. Experimental validation results show that the linearized model does have slightly worse steady-state accuracy than the nonlinear model, but that the dynamic accuracy seems to be almost unaffected by the linearization and is considered sufficiently good to be used in control design.
As a next step, the linearized model is used to design model-based control strategies for AHPSs. A special focus is put on redundantly-actuated configurations, i.e. configurations with more manipulated variables than controlled variables, which allows using additional degrees of freedom to extend the operating range of AHPS and hence improve their partial load capability. Two model-based control approaches are discussed: First, a linear model predictive control (MPC) approach is presented - a well-established and generally easy-to-parameterize approach, which, however, often results in high computational effort prohibitive to its implementation on a conventional PLC. Therefore, a second control approach based on state feedback is presented which is mathematically simple enough for implementation on a conventional PLC. It consists of an observer for state variables and unknown disturbances, a state feedback controller and, in case of redundantly-actuated configurations, a dynamic control allocation algorithm. Both approaches are experimentally validated and compared to a state-of-the art control approach based on SISO PI control, showing that the model-based MIMO control approaches allow for a wider operating range and hence better modulation and partial load capability compared to the SISO PI approach. This, in turn, reduces ON/OFF operation of AHPSs and also facilitates their integration into complex energy systems to generate heating and cooling in a ressource-efficient manner.