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Conference contributions | 2022

Conference contribution - Energy and Climate Transformations 3rd International Conference on Energy Research & Social Science

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A better understanding of the underlying motives of consumers considering a new RESS (heating,
cooling and electricity) can contribute to create favorable conditions for an energy transition.
Therefore, the main objectives of this research project are to:
▪ Identify motives of consumers interested in ordeciding for a certain RESS
▪ Assess the impact of gender and intersectingaspects, such as age, income and education on these motives.


Other publication | 2022

Key Messages – Kurze Zusammenfassung der Ergebnisse aus der Motivanalyse

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„Welche Heizung passt zu mir/uns? Vielleicht auch Kühlen oder selber Strom erzeugen?“ – Diese
Fragen stellen sich oft, wenn der Traum von den eigenen vier Wänden näher rückt. Egal ob bei Neubau
oder Sanierung, die Wahl eines passenden Energiebereitstellungssystems (EBS) sollte wohl überlegt
sein. Neben den technologischen Fragen sind es auch persönliche Motive, welche die Entscheidung
der Nutzer*innen beeinflussen.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2022

Self-Heating of Biochar during Postproduction Storage by O2 Chemisorption at Low Temperatures

Phounglamcheik A, Johnson N, Kienzl N, Strasser C, Umeki K. Self-Heating of Biochar during Postproduction Storage by O2 Chemisorption at Low Temperatures. Energies. 2022.15:380

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Biochar is attracting attention as an alternative carbon/fuel source to coal in the process industry and energy sector. However, it is prone to self-heating and often leads to spontaneous ignition and thermal runaway during storage, resulting in production loss and health risks. This study investigates biochar self-heating upon its contact with O2 at low temperatures, i.e., 50–300 °C. First, kinetic parameters of O2 adsorption and CO2 release were measured in a thermogravimetric analyzer using biochar produced from a pilot-scale pyrolysis process. Then, specific heat capacity and heat of reactions were measured in a differential scanning calorimeter. Finally, a one-dimensional transient model was developed to simulate self-heating in containers and gain insight into the influences of major parameters. The model showed a good agreement with experimental measurement in a closed metal container. It was observed that char temperature slowly increased from the initial temperature due to heat released during O2 adsorption. Thermal runaway, i.e., self-ignition, was observed in some cases even at the initial biochar temperature of ca. 200 °C. However, if O2 is not permeable through the container materials, the temperature starts decreasing after the consumption of O2 in the container. The simulation model was also applied to examine important factors related to self-heating. The results suggested that self-heating can be somewhat mitigated by decreasing the void fraction, reducing storage volume, and lowering the initial char temperature. This study demonstrated a robust way to estimate the cooling demands required in the biochar production process.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Analysing price cointegration of sawmill by-products in the forest-based sector in Austria

Fuhrmann M, Dißauer C, Strasser C, Schmid E. Analysing price cointegration of sawmill by-products in the forest-based sector in Austria. Forest Policy and Economics. 2021.131:102560.

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Empirical analyses of interlinkages and price dependencies in the forest-based sector support the forecast of market developments and the design of efficient utilization pathways. This article aims at analysing price cointegration between roundwood (sawlogs, pulpwood), sawmill by-products (sawdust, wood chips) and wood products (pellets, particle board) in the forest-based sector in Austria. Monthly price data for the period 2005–2019 were used for the following statistical tests: (1) The Augmented-Dickey-Fuller and Zivot-Andrews unit root tests were conducted to investigate stationarity of the data; (2) The Johansen Cointegration test was pairwise applied to price time series; (3) The Granger Causality test was used for cointegrated time series to examine which one is price leading. Furthermore, sawmill by-product prices were modelled as Vector Error Correction Models (VECM) to analyse their common behaviour. The dataset was divided to a training (2005–2017) and test (2018–2019) subset to assess the prediction accuracy of the models. The training data were used to estimate a VAR model as basis for forecasts, which were compared to the test data. Results show that sawdust prices are cointegrated and thus modelled with pellet and particle board prices. In contrast, wood chips are used for several applications and thus prices are cointegrated and modelled with prices of sawlogs, pulpwood, pellets and particle board. The comparison with the test data showed that forecasts were able to predict data from 2018 to 2019 well. However, a decrease in prices, starting in 2019 and intensified by the Covid-19 pandemic, could not be fully captured by these forecasts.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Drivers and barriers in retrofitting pulp and paper industry with bioenergy for more efficient production of liquid, solid and gaseous biofuels: A review.

Mäki E, Saastamoinen H, Melin K, Matschegg D, Pihkola H. Drivers and barriers in retrofitting pulp and paper industry with bioenergy for more efficient production of liquid, solid and gaseous biofuels: A review. Biomass and Bioenergy. 2021.106036. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2021.106036

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Ample interest for more efficient utilization of bio-based residues has emerged in the Nordic pulp and paper (P&P) industry, which uses virgin wood as feedstock. Although different bioenergy retrofit technologies for production of liquid, solid, and gaseous bioenergy products have been applied in the existing P&P mills, the number of installations remains small. The lack of profound knowledge of existing bioenergy retrofits hinders the replication and market uptake of potential technologies. This review synthesises the existing knowledge of European installations and identifies the key drivers and barriers for implementation to foster the market uptake of potential technologies. The bioenergy retrofits were reviewed in terms of technical maturity, drivers, barriers and market potential. Based on this evaluation, common drivers and barriers towards wider market uptake were outlined from political, economic, social, technical, environmental, and legal perspective. Technologies already commercially applied include anaerobic fermentation of sludge, bark gasification, tall oil diesel and bioethanol production, whereas lignin extraction, biomethanol production, hydrothermal liquefaction and hydrothermal carbonization are being demonstrated or first applications are under construction. The findings of this review show that a stable flow of residues at P&P mills creates a solid base for retrofitting. New innovative bio-based products would allow widening the companies' product portfolios and creating new businesses. Also, European Union's (EU) legislation drives towards advanced biofuels production. Wider uptake of the retrofitting technologies requires overcoming the barriers related to uncertainty of economic feasibility and unestablished markets for new products rather than technical immaturity. 


Conference contributions | 2021

Effects of varying comminution techniques and pyrolysis temperatures on the particle shape of pyrolyzed wood powders and its implications on fluidisation behaviour

Deutsch R, Krammer G, Strasser C, Kienzl N. Effects of varying comminution techniques and pyrolysis temperatures on the particle shape of pyrolyzed wood powders and its implications on fluidisation behaviour. 29th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, EUBCE 2021, 26-29 April 2021. 2021.

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Iron production via blast furnace utilizes coal and coke to reduce iron oxides which results in high greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass-based reducing agents may reduce its fossil carbon footprint. Charcoal as bioreducer has been since the beginning of steelmaking. In order to obtain a reducing agent which is appropriately fluidizable for pulverized coal injection (PCI), the most influential powder characteristics must be named and the influence of thermal pre-treatment and comminution technique on particle properties have to be examined. The aim is to show that particle shape design of a grinding product is feasible to a certain extent by varying mill types and how pyrolyzed wood powder properties technically relevant for powder conveying processes can be influenced .


Studien | 2021

Energiespeicher in Österreich

Marktentwicklung 2020

Biermayr P, Aigenbauer St, Enigl M, Fink C, Knabl S, Leonhartsberger K, Matschegg D, Prem E, Strasser C, Wittmann M. Energiespeicher in Österreich Marktentwicklung 2020. 2021

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Conference Papers | 2021

Increasing economic efficiency of cultivating microalgae by recycling process water

Neubauer M, Bauer L, Lanschützer E, Cayir P, Sonnleitner A, Meixner K, Fritz I, Drosg B. Increasing economic efficiency of cultivating microalgae by recycling process water. 29th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, EUBCE 2021, 26-29 April 2021. 2021.

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This abstract gives a glimpse of the output revealed in a project focusing on recycling used medium from algae cultivation. In close cooperation with the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, the Institute of Microbiology - The Czech Academy of Sciences as well as the algae biomass production company Ecoduna GmbH, it was possible to target industrial needs with scientific research approaches.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Integration of market aspects into material development: approach and exemplification for a wood composite

Fuhrmann M, Schwarzbauer P, Hesser F. Integration of market aspects into material development: approach and exemplification for a wood composite. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-021-01697-z

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Due to a variety of applications and complex requirements in specific fields of use, the number of different materials is increasing. Thereof, the majority fails at the stage of market introduction, because the focus of material development is mostly on technical aspects, while market aspects are often neglected. One possible way of market introduction is material substitution. Thereby, requirements a material needs to meet are well known. However, a certain market focus on material development would be helpful regarding the final goal of the customer satisfaction. Therefore, this study presents an approach, which aims at guiding the technical material development and thus starts one stage earlier than most other studies, which focus on market introduction. A multi-stage approach helps integrating market aspects into material development, using the following methods: (1) method of Ashby to compare materials from a technical point of view and identify theoretically substitutable material groups and potential applications, (2) market data research and comparison for the identification of attractive markets, (3) method of Kano to classify material requirements and prioritize the optimization of material properties to satisfy the customers in selected markets. This approach is showcased and discussed using the example of an innovative wood composite under development, where it represented an aiding tool for guiding the further material development. An adaptation to any other material is possible at each of the three stages, although there are some limitations, which have to be considered, for example the selection of technical properties for the material comparison.


Conference contributions | 2021

Price cointegration in the Austrian sawmill industry with a focus on by-products

Fuhrmann M, Dißauer C, Strasser C, Schmid E. Price cointegration in the Austrian sawmill industry with a focus on by-products. 29th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, EUBCE 2021. 26-29 April 2021.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Applicability of Torrefied Sunflower Husk Pellets in Small and Medium Scale Furnaces

Kienzl N, Margaritis N, Isemin R, Zaychenko V, Strasser C, Kourkoumpas DS, Grammelis P, Klimov D, Larina O, Sytchev G, Mikhalev A. Applicability of Torrefied Sunflower Husk Pellets in Small and Medium Scale. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 2020;275:122882.

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The aim of this paper is to test the applicability of upgraded agricultural biomass feedstock such as torrefied sunflower husks during combustion in small and medium heating applications. Sunflower husk is formed in large quantities at enterprises producing sunflower oil and can be used as biofuel. However, big problems arise due to the low bulk density of husks and the rapid growth of ash deposits on the heating surfaces of boilers. In order to solve these problems, it was proposed to produce pellets from husks, and to subject these pellets to torrefaction. After torrefaction, net calorific value was increased by 29% while the risk of high temperature corrosion of boilers was reduced. Signs of ash softening neither occurred in combustion of raw nor in combustion of torrefied sunflower husk pellets. High aerosol emissions, already present in raw sunflower husk pellets, could not be mitigated by torrefaction. First combustion results at medium scale furnaces indicated that sunflower husk pellets (both raw and torrefied) in a commercial boiler < 400 kW, operated in a mode with low primary zone temperatures (< 850 °C), meet current emission limits. Regarding the future upcoming emission limits according to the European Medium Combustion Plant Directive, additional measures are required in order to comply with the dust limits.


Conference contributions | 2020

Erneuerbare in Österreich - Die Marktdiffusion im Lichte der Klima- und Energieziele

Biermayr P, Leonhartsberger K, Dißauer C; Eberl M, Enigl M, Fechner H, Lukas Fischer L, Fürnsinn B, Moidl S, Schmidl C, Strasser C, Weiss W, Wonisch P, Wopienka E. Erneuerbare in Österreich - Die Marktdiffusion im Lichte der Klima- und Energieziele. EnInnov 2020, 16. Symposium Energieinnovation (oral presentation). 2020.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Experimental investigation of biomass based reducing agents for blast furnace ironmaking

Kienzl N, Strasser C, Deutsch R. Experimental investigation of biomass based reducing agents for blast furnace ironmaking. 6th Central European Biomass Conference (oral presentation). 2020.

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Other Publications | 2020

GreenGas die Alternative zu Erdgas

Strasser C, Luisser M, Drosg B. GreenGas die Alternative zu Erdgas. TGA Planung 2021. December 2020.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Lessons Learned from Alternative Fuels Experience

Sonnleitner A, Bacovsky D. Lessons Learned from Alternative Fuels Experience. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz

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Decarbonising the transport sector is one of the key goals of national and international climate change mitigation policies. Rapid and effective market introduction of alternative fuels and vehicles is needed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the existing vehicle fleet as soon as possible and as extensively as possible.

However, experience with various attempts to introduce alternative fuels and vehicles to the market has shown that this is not always successful. Several participants in the Advanced Motor Fuels Technology Collaboration Program (AMF TCP) have therefore proposed an annex on lessons learned from market launch attempts.

The circumstances of the introduction of advanced motor fuels and the factors influencing their commercialization (resource, transport infrastructure, economic situation, etc.) in each country are different, and it is difficult to universally evaluate an advanced motor fuels policy.

For this reason, this annex clarifies the background and objective of the central government and local governments’ introduction policy and specific measures on advanced motor fuels in the past, and summarizes the effectiveness, successes, and lessons learned regarding the promotion of advanced motor fuels in each individual case of introduction and commercialization.

The participating countries Austria, China, Finland, Japan, Sweden and the USA conduct analyses of their own case studies on past market introductions taking into account specific framework conditions for each country:

Austria: low blend biofuels, CNG-driven cars, prevented introduction of E10

China: Ethanol

Finland: E10, E85, drop-in components for diesel, biogas

Japan: FAME, natural gas

Sweden: reduction obligation, high blend biofuels and biogas, E85

USA: low and high level blends of ethanol, methanol and FFVs, natural gas

The sum of the case studies is analysed and key drivers of successes and key barriers of failures are identified. Preliminary results from this work will be discussed in an expert workshop in 2020, and then the final lessons learned and recommendations will be derived. Policy briefs including key messages, best practices, lessons learned and avoided mistakes related to advanced motor fuels covering both fuels and related vehicle technologies will be developed and provided as recommendations for political decision makers.


Conference contributions | 2020

Lessons Learned from Alternative Fuels Experience

Sonnleitner A, Bacovsky D. Lessons Learned from Alternative Fuels Experience. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz

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Decarbonising the transport sector is one of the key goals of national and international climate change mitigation policies. Rapid and effective market introduction of alternative fuels and vehicles is needed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the existing vehicle fleet as soon as possible and as extensively as possible.

However, experience with various attempts to introduce alternative fuels and vehicles to the market has shown that this is not always successful. Several participants in the Advanced Motor Fuels Technology Collaboration Program (AMF TCP) have therefore proposed an annex on lessons learned from market launch attempts.

The circumstances of the introduction of advanced motor fuels and the factors influencing their commercialization (resource, transport infrastructure, economic situation, etc.) in each country are different, and it is difficult to universally evaluate an advanced motor fuels policy.

For this reason, this annex clarifies the background and objective of the central government and local governments’ introduction policy and specific measures on advanced motor fuels in the past, and summarizes the effectiveness, successes, and lessons learned regarding the promotion of advanced motor fuels in each individual case of introduction and commercialization.

The participating countries Austria, China, Finland, Japan, Sweden and the USA conduct analyses of their own case studies on past market introductions taking into account specific framework conditions for each country:

Austria: low blend biofuels, CNG-driven cars, prevented introduction of E10

China: Ethanol

Finland: E10, E85, drop-in components for diesel, biogas

Japan: FAME, natural gas

Sweden: reduction obligation, high blend biofuels and biogas, E85

USA: low and high level blends of ethanol, methanol and FFVs, natural gas

The sum of the case studies is analysed and key drivers of successes and key barriers of failures are identified. Preliminary results from this work will be discussed in an expert workshop in 2020, and then the final lessons learned and recommendations will be derived. Policy briefs including key messages, best practices, lessons learned and avoided mistakes related to advanced motor fuels covering both fuels and related vehicle technologies will be developed and provided as recommendations for political decision makers.


Conference contributions | 2020

Mapping bioenergy retrofitting in Europe´s industry - BIOFIT first results

Reumerman P, Rutz D, Janssen R, Bacovsky D, Gröngröft A, Saastamoinen H, Mäki E, Karampinis E. Mapping bioenergy retrofitting in Europe´s industry - BIOFIT first results. 28th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition (poster) 2020.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Mapping bioenergy retrofitting in Europe´s industry - BIOFIT first results

Reumerman P, Rutz D, Janssen R, Bacovsky D, Gröngröft A, Saastamoinen H, Mäki E, Karampinis E. Mapping bioenergy retrofitting in Europe´s industry - BIOFIT first results. 28th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition (poster) 2020.

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Books / Bookchapters | 2020

Technische Optionen für die Umrüstung und Nachrüstung von Industrien mit Bioenergie

Rutz D, Janssen R, Reumerman P, Spekreijse J, Matschegg D, Bacovsky D, et al. Technische Optionen für die Umrüstung und Nachrüstung von Industrien mit Bioenergie. WIP Renewable Energies.2020

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Conference contributions | 2020

Techno-economic modelling of bioeconomy value chains

Fuhrmann Marilene

Dißauer C, Fuhrmann M, Strasser C, Enigl M, Matschegg D. Techno-economic modelling of bioeconomy value chains. 6th Central European Biomass Conference. 2020. Graz.

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In the context of Austria´s and the EU´s ambitious goals to combat climate change by reducing the demand for fossil fuels in all sectors, many industries plan to increase the share of renewable energy in their production processes. Furthermore greenhouse gases shall be reduced by 36 % until 2030 (compared to 2005), which means another 14 Mio. tons CO2eq will have to be reduced per year in comparison to data from 2016. In doing so, some industries find it sufficient to use green electricity or green gas from the grid, but for some industries the use of biomass is particularly interesting. In particular, the wood-based economy as an essential part of the Austrian bio-based economy is needed to promote the development of sustainable production and sustainable energy generation. Besides the increasing demand for woody biomass, the supply side will also undergo substantial changes since increasing calamities (such as bark beetle infestation and windthrow) caused by climate change will affect the wood supply to a varying extend. Hence, within the project “BioEcon” the BIOENERGY 2020+ team together with industry partners analyses the effects of these developments on the wood-based economy and the corresponding supply chains in terms of economic and technological perspectives including econometric models to evaluate woody biomass supply and demand.
 


Conference contributions | 2020

The Contribution of advanced renewable transport fuels to transport decarbonisation in 2030 and beyond

Bacovsky D, Laurikko J. The Contribution of advanced renewable transport fuels to transport decarbonisation in 2030 and beyond. 28th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition (oral presentation) 2020.

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In the light of climate change, there is an urgent need to decarbonize our societies. The transport sector is specifically challenging, as transport demand is still growing, and so are the sector´s GHG emissions. Several countries have set ambitious national targets for GHG reduction in the transport sector. These are often backed with policy measures for implementation of both advanced renewable transport fuels and electrification.
In a project set up jointly by two Technology Collaboration Programmes of the International Energy Agency, namely the IEA Bioenergy TCP and the Advanced Motor Fuels TCP, the contribution that advanced renewable transport fuels should make to the decarbonisation of the transport sector is assessed by means of country-specific assessments.


Conference contributions | 2020

The Contribution of advanced renewable transport fuels to transport decarbonisation in 2030 and beyond

Bacovsky D, Laurikko J. The Contribution of advanced renewable transport fuels to transport decarbonisation in 2030 and beyond. 28th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition (oral presentation) 2020.

Details

In the light of climate change, there is an urgent need to decarbonize our societies. The transport sector is specifically challenging, as transport demand is still growing, and so are the sector´s GHG emissions. Several countries have set ambitious national targets for GHG reduction in the transport sector. These are often backed with policy measures for implementation of both advanced renewable transport fuels and electrification.
In a project set up jointly by two Technology Collaboration Programmes of the International Energy Agency, namely the IEA Bioenergy TCP and the Advanced Motor Fuels TCP, the contribution that advanced renewable transport fuels should make to the decarbonisation of the transport sector is assessed by means of country-specific assessments.


Other Publications | 2019

BIOFIT – Bioenergieumrüstungen für Europas Industrie

Bacovsky D. BIOFIT – Bioenergieumrüstungen für Europas Industrie. Highlights der Energieforschung 2019. October 2019.

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Conference contributions | 2019

Biomassevergasung als künftige Säule der Gasversorgung in Österreich

Strasser C. Biomassevergasung als künftige Säule der Gasversorgung in Österreich. 10. Internationale Anwenderkonferenz Biomassevergasung. Dec 2019.

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Other Publications | 2019

How to Introduce the Future Transport System

Bacovsky D. How to Introduce the Future Transport System. Transport Decarbonisation Workshop. November 2019.

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