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Conference contributions | 2012

Investigation of the Thermal Conversion Behavior of Polyethylene Mixtures in a Dual Fluidized Bed Gasifier

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Investigation of the Thermal Conversion Behavior of Polyethylene Mixtures in a Dual Fluidized Bed Gasifier, 3rd International Symposium on Gasification and its Applications (iSGA-3) 2012, 16th of October 2012, Vancouver, Canada. (peer reviewed) (oral presentation)

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Investigation of User Behavior and Assessment of Typical Operation Mode for Different Types of Firewood Room Heating Appliances in Austria

Reichert G, Schmidl C, Haslinger W, Schwabl M, Moser W, Aigenbauer S, Wöhler M, Hochenauer C. Investigation of User Behavior and Assessment of Typical Operation Mode for Different Types of Firewood Room Heating Appliances in Austria. Renewable Energy. August 2016;93: 245-254.

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Firewood heaters like firewood roomheaters, tiled stoves and residential biomass cookers are commonly used for supplying the residences with renewable heat. However, these kinds of appliances were identified as responsible for relevant amounts of gaseous CO and OGC as well as particulate emissions causing negative health effects. Beside technological reasons, the operating conditions and the user behavior are essential reasons for increased emissions, especially in real life operation.

Therefore, this study aimed at an investigation and assessment of typical real life user behavior by a survey. Based on the findings effective and customer friendly technological and non-technological optimization approaches for a better and more environmental friendly real life performance were defined.

The results of the study showed principally similar user behavior of all considered types of appliances regarding most relevant operation characteristics, i.e. kind, properties and amount of used fuels, ignition procedure and air valve settings. Most effective non-technological optimization approaches were found for an enhancement of external training arrangements and the development of user friendly manuals that aimed mainly at an improvement of the ignition procedure from bottom–up to top–down ignition method. The use of devices with an automatically controlled combustion air supply was identified as promising technological measure.


Conference Papers | 2016

Investigations of a dual fluidized bed steam gasification plant by means of computation particle fluid dynamics

Kraft S, Kirnbauer F, Hofbauer H. Investigations of a dual fluidized bed steam gasification plant by means of computation particle fluid dynamics. 24th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (oral presentation). June 2016, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Investigations of aerosol formation pathways during MSW combustion based on high-temperature impactor measurements

Brunner T, Fluch J, Obernberger I, Warnecke R. Investigations of aerosol formation pathways during MSW combustion based on high-temperature impactor measurements. Fuel Process Technol. 2013;105:154-60.

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In order to gain deeper insights into aerosol formation processes during MSW combustion, test runs with a specially developed high-temperature aerosol measurement and sampling device, the so called high-temperature impactor (HTI), as well as subsequent chemical analyses of the particles sampled have been performed at a real-scale plant. The results show that aerosol formation during MSW combustion is based on the volatilisation of minor amounts of Si-, Ca-, Mg- and Al-compounds followed by nucleation in the fuel bed region which is then followed by excessive condensation of alkaline metal sulphates and especially chlorides in the radiative and the convective boiler sections. At lower flue gas temperatures in the superheater as well as the economiser section also the condensation of heavy metal (Zn, Pb) chlorides provides contributions to aerosol formation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Conference contributions | 2010

Investigations of aerosol formation pathways during MSW combustion based on high-temperature impactor measurements

Brunner T, Fluch J, Obernberger I, Warnecke R. Investigations of aerosol formation pathways during MSW combustion based on high-temperature impactor measurements, Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Generation 2010, 29th of August-3rd of September 2010, Saariselka, Lapland.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2012

Investigations on hydrotreating of fischer tropsch-biowaxes for generation of bio-products from lignocellulosic biomass

Schablitzky HW, Lichtscheidl J, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Investigations on hydrotreating of fischer tropsch-biowaxes for generation of bio-products from lignocellulosic biomass. Modern Applied Science. 2012;6(4):28-37.

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The present study describes the application of Fischer Tropsch biowaxes as a feedstock in a pilot-scale hydroprocessing unit at operating conditions very similar to industrial size hydrotreating plants of traditional refineries. The project focus on a future coprocessing of biowax/gasoil blends due to produce bio-products derived from lignocellulosic biomass: crack gases, naphtha, kerosene, diesel and a residual product. Hydro-processing plants operating at mild cracking conditions support the production of high amounts in middle distillates at reduced coke formation. Premium bio-diesel and bio-kerosene with excellent cold flow properties are the main objective of the investigations. Various test runs with different hydrotreating catalysts have been conducted due to determine the influence of waxy feedstock on catalyst behavior and product distribution. Depending on the catalyst selected, the fixed bed reactor streamed by hydrogen operates under specified cracking condition defined by the following parameters: reactor temperature, hydrogen pressure and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV). Test runs with selected catalysts - isodewaxing (IDW), hydro-desulphurization (HDS) and the catalytic deparaffination (CDP) catalyst - have been executed at constant process conditions in order to compare the product spectrum and properties of product groups. Highest amounts of bio-diesel and bio-kerosene with excellent cold flow properties can be obtained with the IDW catalyst. This NiW- based catalyst with special additives generates cleaved and reshaped molecular fragments via skeletal isomerisation increasing the isoparaffin content of naphtha and middle distillates. Further investigations with this catalyst type have been executed due to determine the catalyst aging effect in a separate long term test run. The loss of cracking severity during operation of the catalyst can be observed by a steady decline in conversion. Unsaturated hydrocarbons such as olefins and diolefines in the bio-feedstock support the formation of a coke layer on the catalyst surface resulting in reinforced deactivation. As the consequence naphtha and finally the crack gases and the kerosene fraction are shifted to higher molecular fragments increasing the diesel and residue yield. Physicochemical properties of the product groups obtained during the test run vary and especially the cold flow properties from the diesel and kerosene fraction degrade significant. Balancing the conversion decline of the catalyst in operation can be realized by increasing the reactor temperature and the hydrogen pressure, but the effect is time limited.
 


Conference Papers | 2015

Investigations on the catalytic activity of bed material coating regarding the water-gas-shift reaction and the steam reforming of model compounds for lighter and heavier hydrocarbons

Kuba M, Havlik F, Kirnbauer F, Hofbauer H. Investigations on the catalytic activity of bed material coating regarding the water-gas-shift reaction and the steam reforming of model compounds for lighter and heavier hydrocarbons. 23rd European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (oral presentation). June 2015, Vienna, Austria.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Investigations using a cold flow model of char mixing in the gasification reactor of a dual fluidized bed gasification plant

Kraft S, Kirnbauer F, Hofbauer H. Investigations using a cold flow model of char mixing in the gasification reactor of a dual fluidized bed gasification plant. Powder Technology. 1 July 2017;316: 687-696.

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This paper treats the mixing and movement of char in a dual fluidized bed (DFB) biomass gasification plant. In these plants such measurements are troublesome to perform, and so a cold flow model has been developed to investigate this topic. This cold flow model allows simulating the fluidization behaviour of the gasification reactor in the DFB plant in Güssing, Austria. The recirculation of the bed material is also possible, and can be easily controlled with a rotary valve. In the cold flow model, bronze is used as the bed material and polyethylene as the char. It is possible to take samples during operation to investigate the char concentration in the bed material recirculation stream. Experiments have shown that the char shows a flotsam behaviour since it is of low density. Furthermore, the investigations have shown that higher fluidization rates and higher bed material recirculation rates enhance the char mixing and increase the char concentration in the recirculation stream. It was found that doubling the overall char concentration in the system does not lead to a doubling of the char concentration in the bed material recirculation stream. Furthermore, the influence of the bed height in the gasification reactor was investigated. It was found that higher bed heights lead to lower char concentrations in the recirculation stream. These initial investigations revealed that much is still unknown about DFB plants, but the knowledge of the behaviour of the different types of particles in the bubbling bed of the gasification reactor helps to further improve and develop the DFB technology.


Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Jatropha mahafalensis oil from Madagascar: Properties and suitability as liquid biofuel

Sonnleitner A, Rathbauer J, Randriamalala JR, Raoliarivelo LIB, Andrianarisoa JH, Rabeniala R, et al. Jatropha mahafalensis oil from Madagascar: Properties and suitability as liquid biofuel. Energy for Sustainable Development. 2013;17(4):326-30.

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Access to affordable and renewable sources of energy is crucial to reducing poverty and enhancing rural development in countries of the global South. Straight vegetable oil was recently identified as a possible alternative to conventional biomass for rural energy supply. In this context, the Jatropha curcas Linn. species has been extensively investigated with regard to its potential as a biofuel feedstock. In contrast, only little is known about Jatropha mahafalensis Jum. & H. Perrier, which is an indigenous and endemic representative of the Jatropha genus in Madagascar. This paper explores the potential and suitability of J. mahafalensis as a biofuel feedstock. Seed samples were collected in the area of Soalara in south-western Madagascar in February and September 2011. Two agro-ecological zones (coastal area and calcareous plateau) and two plant age groups (below and above 10. years) were considered. These four sample groups were analyzed with regard to oil properties, element contents, and fatty acid profiles. Measured values differed greatly between the two harvests, probably owing to different climatic or storage conditions. No direct relation between age of trees or location and oil quality could be established. The analyses indicate that J. mahafalensis oil can be used in oil lamps, cooking stoves and stationary combustion engines for electrification or for biodiesel production. However, modifications in storage and extraction methods, as well as further processing steps are necessary to enable its utilization as a straight vegetable oil and feedstock for biodiesel production. If these technical requirements can be met, and if it turns out that J. mahafalensis oil is economically competitive in comparison with firewood, charcoal, paraffin and petroleum, it can be considered as a promising feedstock for rural energy supply. © 2013 International Energy Initiative.


Conference contributions | 2013

Kerosin from wood over FT synthesis

Rauch R. Kerosin from wood over FT synthesis, 7. Kolloquium Sustainable BioEconomy, KIT, 9th of December 2013, Karlsruhe, Germany. (oral presentation)

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Conference contributions | 2012

Key-note lecture: Novel characterisation methods for biomass fuels and their application

Obernberger I. Key-note lecture: Novel characterisation methods for biomass fuels and their application, Conference Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production and Environment 2012, 23th-27th of September 2012, Puchberg, Austria.

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Conference contributions | 2014

Kinetic scheme and heat of reaction of biomass pyrolysis and torrefaction considering charring reactions.

Anca-Couce A, Mehrabian R, Scharler R, Obernberger I. Kinetic scheme and heat of reaction of biomass pyrolysis and torrefaction considering charring reactions, 20th International Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis Conference (PYRO2014), 19th-22nd of May 2014, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2014

Kinetic scheme of biomass pyrolysis considering secondary charring reactions

Anca-Couce A, Mehrabian R, Scharler R, Obernberger I. Kinetic scheme of biomass pyrolysis considering secondary charring reactions. Energy Conversion and Management. 2014;87:687-96.

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A widely applicable kinetic scheme for pyrolysis is still missing. In this work an adaptation of the mechanistic scheme developed by Ranzi et al. (2008) for pyrolysis of small ash free biomass particles is proposed. The scheme is modified to include secondary char formation reactions, which are relevant for particles of a certain thickness, and sugar formation is avoided due to the catalytic effect of alkali metals in biomass. The predictions of the adapted scheme are compared to experimental data from the literature of pyrolysis in fixed beds of particles with a size of around 1 cm. It is shown that the adaptation improves the prediction of the final char yield and its CHO composition and also the yields of the main groups of volatiles, as carbonyls + alcohols, sugars and water vapor. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Contributions to trade journals | 2014

Kinetic scheme to predict product composition of biomass torrefaction

Anca-Couce A, Mehrabian R, Scharler R, Obernberger I. Kinetic scheme to predict product composition of biomass torrefaction [Internet]; 2014 [cited 2015 Aug 12]. Available from: www.scopus.com.

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A kinetic scheme for the prediction of product composition of torrefaction is presented in this work. The scheme is based on a pyrolysis scheme for fast pyrolysis of small ash free biomass particles and was adapted to consider the presence of secondary char formation reactions, the inhibition of sugar formation due to the catalytic effect of alkali metals in biomass, as well as the typical hemicellulose structure of hardwoods. The torrgas composition predicted by the model is compared to experimental data of torrefaction in a lab-scale packed bed reactor. It is shown that the adapted model is able to predict the yields of the main volatile groups, i.e., permanent gases, light and heavy condensable species and the yields of the several groups in which condensable species were classified based on their structure, i.e., carbonyls and alcohols, furans, phenolics as well as water vapour. Copyright © 2014,AIDIC Servizi S.r.l.


Technical Reports | 2019

Langzeitvalidierung eines neuen Ansatzes zur CO-Lambda-Optimierung

Zemann C, Gölles M. Langzeitvalidierung eines neuen Ansatzes zur CO-Lambda-Optimierung. 2019.

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Scientific Journals | 2019

Layer formation mechanism of K-feldspar in bubbling fluidized bed combustion of phosphorus-lean and phosphorus-rich residual biomass.

Wagner K, Häggström G, Skoglund N, Priscak J, Kuba M, Öhman M, Hofbauer H. Layer formation mechanism of K-feldspar in bubbling fluidized bed combustion of phosphorus-lean and phosphorus-rich residual biomass. Applied Energy 2019.248:545-554.

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The use of phosphorus-rich fuels in fluidized bed combustion is one probable way to support both heat and power production and phosphorus recovery. Ash is accumulated in the bed during combustion and interacts with the bed material to form layers and/or agglomerates, possibly removing phosphorus from the bed ash fraction. To further deepen the knowledge about the difference in the mechanisms behind the ash chemistry of phosphorus-lean and phosphorus-rich fuels, experiments in a 5 kW bench-scale-fluidized bed test-rig with K-feldspar as the bed material were conducted with bark, wheat straw, chicken manure, and chicken manure admixtures to bark and straw. Bed material samples were collected and studied for layer formation and agglomeration phenomena by scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The admixture of phosphorus-rich chicken manure to bark changed the layer formation mechanism, shifting the chemistry to the formation of phosphates rather than silicates. The admixture of chicken manure to straw reduced the ash melting and agglomeration risk, making it possible to increase the time until defluidization of the fluidized bed occurred. The results also highlight that an increased ash content does not necessarily lead to more ash melting related problems if the ash melting temperature is high enough.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2019

Layer Formation on Feldspar Bed Particles during Indirect Gasification of Wood Part 1: K-Feldspar

Faust R, Hannl T K, Berdugo Vilches T, Kuba M, Öhmann M, Seemann M C, Knutsson P Layer Formation on Feldspar Bed Particles during Indirect Gasification of Wood Part 1: K-Feldspar.Energy&Fuels 2019.33:8:7321-7332

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The choice of bed material for biomass gasification plays a crucial role for the overall efficiency of the process. Olivine is the material conventionally used for biomass gasification due to the observed activity of olivine toward cracking of unwanted tars. Despite its catalytic activity, olivine contains high levels of chromium, which complicates the deposition of used bed material. Feldspar has shown the same activity as olivine when used as a bed material in biomass gasification. As opposed to olivine, feldspar does not contain environmentally hazardous compounds, which makes it a preferred alternative for further applications. The interaction of bed material and ash heavily influences the properties of the bed material. In the present study interactions between feldspar and main ash compounds of woody biomass in an indirect gasification system were investigated. Bed material samples were collected at different time intervals and analyzed with SEM-EDS and XRD. The obtained analysis results were then compared to thermodynamic models. The performed study was divided in two parts: in part 1 (the present paper), K-rich feldspar was investigated, whereas Na-rich feldspar is presented in part 2 of the study (DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.9b01291). From the material analysis performed, it can be seen that, as a result of the bed materials’ interactions with the formed ash compounds, the latter were first deposited on the surface of the K-feldspar particles and later resulted in the formation of Ca- and Mg-rich layers. The Ca enriched in the layers further reacted with the feldspar, which led to its diffusion into the particles and the formation of CaSiO3 and KAlSiO4. Contrary to Ca, Mg did not react with the feldspar and remained on the surface of the particles, where it was found as Mg- or Ca-Mg-silicates. As a result of the described interactions, layer separation was noted after 51 h with an outer Mg-rich layer and an inner Ca-rich layer. Due to the development of the Ca- and Mg-rich layers and the bed material–ash interactions, crack formation was observed on the particles’ surfaces.


Scientific Journals | 2019

Layer Formation on Feldspar Bed Particles during Indirect Gasification of Wood. 1. K-Feldspar

Faust R, Hannl TK, Berdugo Vilches T Kuba M, Öhman M, Seemann M, Knutsson P. Layer Formation on Feldspar Bed Particles during Indirect Gasification of Wood. 1. K-Feldspar. Energy and Fuels 2019.33:7321-7332.

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The choice of bed material for biomass gasification plays a crucial role for the overall efficiency of the process. Olivine is the material conventionally used for biomass gasification due to the observed activity of olivine toward cracking of unwanted tars. Despite its catalytic activity, olivine contains high levels of chromium, which complicates the deposition of used bed material. Feldspar has shown the same activity as olivine when used as a bed material in biomass gasification. As opposed to olivine, feldspar does not contain environmentally hazardous compounds, which makes it a preferred alternative for further applications. The interaction of bed material and ash heavily influences the properties of the bed material. In the present study interactions between feldspar and main ash compounds of woody biomass in an indirect gasification system were investigated. Bed material samples were collected at different time intervals and analyzed with SEM-EDS and XRD. The obtained analysis results were then compared to thermodynamic models. The performed study was divided in two parts: in part 1 (the present paper), K-rich feldspar was investigated, whereas Na-rich feldspar is presented in part 2 of the study (DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.9b01291). From the material analysis performed, it can be seen that, as a result of the bed materials’ interactions with the formed ash compounds, the latter were first deposited on the surface of the K-feldspar particles and later resulted in the formation of Ca- and Mg-rich layers. The Ca enriched in the layers further reacted with the feldspar, which led to its diffusion into the particles and the formation of CaSiO3 and KAlSiO4. Contrary to Ca, Mg did not react with the feldspar and remained on the surface of the particles, where it was found as Mg- or Ca-Mg-silicates. As a result of the described interactions, layer separation was noted after 51 h with an outer Mg-rich layer and an inner Ca-rich layer. Due to the development of the Ca- and Mg-rich layers and the bed material–ash interactions, crack formation was observed on the particles’ surfaces.


Scientific Journals | 2019

Layer Formation on Feldspar Bed Particles during Indirect Gasification of Wood. 2. Na-Feldspar

Hannl TK, Faust R, Kuba M, Knutsson P, Berdugo Vilches T, Seemann MC, Öhman M. Layer Formation on Feldspar Bed Particles during Indirect Gasification of Wood Part 2: Na-Feldspar. Energy and Fuels 2019.33:7333-7346.

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Selecting a suitable bed material for the thermochemical conversion of a specific feedstock in a fluidized bed system requires identification of the characteristics of potential bed materials. An essential part of these characteristics is the interaction of the bed material with feedstock ash in a fluidized bed, which leads to layer formation and morphology changes. For this purpose, the interaction of feldspar bed material with the main ash-forming elements in wood ash (Ca, K, Mg, Si) in an indirect gasification system was analyzed using SEM-EDS, XRD, and thermodynamic modeling. In part 1 of this work (DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.9b01291), the layer formation on K-feldspar dominated by Ca reaction and ash deposition was investigated. The aim of this second part of the work was to determine the time-dependent layer formation on Na-feldspar and compare the results with the findings for K-feldspar. Interaction of Na-feldspar with ash-derived elements resulted in different layers on Na-feldspar: K reaction layers, where K replaced Na and Si shares decreased; Ca reaction layers, where Ca enriched and reacted with the Na-feldspar; and ash deposition layers, where wood ash elements accumulated on the surface. Ca reaction layers were formed first and became continuous on the surface before K reaction layers and ash deposition layers were detected. Cracks and crack layer formation in the Na-feldspar particles were found after several days of operation. The layer compositions and growth rates indicate that the diffusion of Ca and K plays an essential role in the formation of Ca reaction and K reaction layers. The reaction with Ca and the crack formation coincide with the interaction previously found for quartz and K-feldspar. In contrast to K-feldspar, Na-feldspar showed high potential for reaction with K. The findings indicate that the reaction of Na-feldspar with ash-derived K makes Na-feldspar a less stable bed material than K-feldspar during the thermochemical conversion of K-rich feedstocks in a fluidized bed system.


Scientific Journals | 2019

Layer formation on K-feldspar in fluidized bed combustion and gasification of bark and chicken manure

Wagner K, Häggström G, Mauerhofer AM, Kuba M, Skoglund N, Öhman M, Hofbauer H. Layer formation on K-feldspar in fluidized bed combustion and gasification of bark and chicken manure. Biomass and Bioenergy 2019.127:105251.

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Understanding layer formation on bed materials used in fluidized beds is a key step for advances in the application of alternative fuels. Layers can be responsible for agglomeration-caused shut-downs but they can also improve the gas composition in fluidized bed gasification. Layers were observed on K-feldspar (KAlSi3O8) impurities originating from the combined heat and power plant Senden which applies the dual fluidized bed (DFB) steam gasification technology. Pure K-feldspar was therefore considered as alternative bed material in DFB steam gasification. Focusing on the interactions between fuel ash and bed material, K-feldspar was tested in combustion and DFB steam gasification atmospheres using different fuels, namely Ca-rich bark, Ca- and P-rich chicken manure, and an admixture of chicken manure to bark. The bed particle layers formed on the bed material surface were characterized using combined scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy; area mappings and line scans were carried out for all samples. The obtained data show no essential influence of operational mode on the layer-formation process. During the combustion and DFB steam gasification of Ca-rich bark, a layer rich in Ca formed while K was diffusing out of the layer. The use of Ca- and P-rich chicken manure inhibited the diffusion of K, and a layer rich in Ca and P formed. The addition of P to bark via chicken manure also changed the underlying layer-formation processes to reflect the same processes as observed for pure chicken manure.


Conference contributions | 2011

LCA of small scale biomass combustion systems for the development of a product label (Ökobilanz von Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen für die Entwicklung eines Produktlabels)

Jungmeier G, Lingitz A, Canella L, Haslinger W, Strasser C, Moser W. LCA of small scale biomass combustion systems for the development of a product label (Ökobilanz von Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen für die Entwicklung eines Produktlabels), Central Europe Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

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Conference Papers | 2013

Leak air in a double-wall chimney system

Lichtenegger K, Hebenstreit B, Pointner C. Leak air in a double-wall chimney system. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2013;410:012059. (peer reviewed)

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Operating biomass stoves in modern buildings with tight shells often requires a room-independent air supply. One possibility to arrange this supply is to use a double-wall chimney with fresh air entering through the annular gap. For this setup, a mathematical model has been developed and checked with experimental data. It turned out that for commercially available chimneys, leakage is not negligible and inclusion of leak air in the calculation is crucial for reproduction of the experimental data. Even with inclusion of this effect, discrepancies remain which call for further investigations and a refinement of the model.


Other Publications | 2021

Leitfaden: Energiegemeinschaften im Tourismussektor

Iglar B, Fina B, Jung M, Markotsky-Kolm E, Tölzer T, Zellinger M, Liedtke P, Oberbauer C. Leitfaden: Energiegemeinschaften im Tourismussektor. Klima- und Energiefonds. December 2021.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Lessons Learned from Alternative Fuels Experience

Sonnleitner A, Bacovsky D. Lessons Learned from Alternative Fuels Experience. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz

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Decarbonising the transport sector is one of the key goals of national and international climate change mitigation policies. Rapid and effective market introduction of alternative fuels and vehicles is needed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the existing vehicle fleet as soon as possible and as extensively as possible.

However, experience with various attempts to introduce alternative fuels and vehicles to the market has shown that this is not always successful. Several participants in the Advanced Motor Fuels Technology Collaboration Program (AMF TCP) have therefore proposed an annex on lessons learned from market launch attempts.

The circumstances of the introduction of advanced motor fuels and the factors influencing their commercialization (resource, transport infrastructure, economic situation, etc.) in each country are different, and it is difficult to universally evaluate an advanced motor fuels policy.

For this reason, this annex clarifies the background and objective of the central government and local governments’ introduction policy and specific measures on advanced motor fuels in the past, and summarizes the effectiveness, successes, and lessons learned regarding the promotion of advanced motor fuels in each individual case of introduction and commercialization.

The participating countries Austria, China, Finland, Japan, Sweden and the USA conduct analyses of their own case studies on past market introductions taking into account specific framework conditions for each country:

Austria: low blend biofuels, CNG-driven cars, prevented introduction of E10

China: Ethanol

Finland: E10, E85, drop-in components for diesel, biogas

Japan: FAME, natural gas

Sweden: reduction obligation, high blend biofuels and biogas, E85

USA: low and high level blends of ethanol, methanol and FFVs, natural gas

The sum of the case studies is analysed and key drivers of successes and key barriers of failures are identified. Preliminary results from this work will be discussed in an expert workshop in 2020, and then the final lessons learned and recommendations will be derived. Policy briefs including key messages, best practices, lessons learned and avoided mistakes related to advanced motor fuels covering both fuels and related vehicle technologies will be developed and provided as recommendations for political decision makers.


Other Presentations | 2015

Life cycle analysis of small scale pellet boilers characterized by high efficiency and low emissions

Monteleone B, Chiesa M, Marzuoli R, Verma VK, Schwarz M, Carlon E, Schmidl C, Ballarin Denti A. Life cycle analysis of small scale pellet boilers characterized by high efficiency and low emissions. Applied Energy. 1 October 2015;155:160-170.

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