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Reviewed Conference Papers | 2022

Increased Flexibility of A Fixed-Bed Biomass Gasifier through Advanced Control

Hollenstein C, Zemann C, Martini S, Gölles M, Felsberger W, Horn M. Increased Flexibility of A Fixed-Bed Biomass Gasifier through Advanced Control. Proceedings of the 30th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition. 2022. 704-711.

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Most industrial fixed-bed biomass gasification systems usually operate at steady-state to produce the maximum amount of energy possible although they can principally modulate their loads to compensate for the fluctuations of other volatile renewable energy systems. To unleash their full load modulation capability, their typically traditional control strategies should be improved, their gas residence times affected by typically basic char removal strategies adjusted and any required manual interaction of an operator avoided. In this respect, a new controller for the char handling (accumulation and removal) of the reduction zone in a fixed-bed biomass gasifier of a representative industrial small-scale gasification system is developed and experimentally verified. This new controller consists of a recursive least-squares estimator for the flow resistance of the gasifier representing the amount of char inside and a switching controller for rotating a grate located at its bottom. The experimental verification reveals that only the traditional (pressure-based) controller requires manual adjustment of the thresholds. Moreover, the new controller (flow resistance based) significantly reduces the fluctuation range during partial load and stabilizes the temperature and pressure downstream the gasifier. This provides the basis for enhancing its fuel flexibility too and is an important feature for flexible operation in future.


Conference Papers | 2021

Increasing economic efficiency of cultivating microalgae by recycling process water

Neubauer M, Bauer L, Lanschützer E, Cayir P, Sonnleitner A, Meixner K, Fritz I, Drosg B. Increasing economic efficiency of cultivating microalgae by recycling process water. 29th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, EUBCE 2021, 26-29 April 2021. 2021.

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This abstract gives a glimpse of the output revealed in a project focusing on recycling used medium from algae cultivation. In close cooperation with the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, the Institute of Microbiology - The Czech Academy of Sciences as well as the algae biomass production company Ecoduna GmbH, it was possible to target industrial needs with scientific research approaches.


Conference contributions | 2020

Individiual heat management in the living room

Schwabl M. Individiual heat management in the living room. 6th Central European Biomass Conference (oral presentation. 2020.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Individual heat management in the living room

Schwabl M. Individual heat management in the living room. 6th Central European Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz.

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Conference contributions | 2020

Influence of ash forming elements from biogenous residues on fluidized bed conversion processes

Fürsatz K, Influence of ash forming elements from biogenous residues on fluidized bed conversion processes. 6th Central Eurpean Biomass Conference, 22-24 January 2020, Graz.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2015

Influence of bed material coatings on the water-gas-shift reaction and steam reforming of toluene as tar model compound of biomass gasification

Kuba M, Havlik F, Kirnbauer F, Hofbauer H. Influence of bed material coatings on the water-gas-shift reaction and steam reforming of toluene as tar model compound of biomass gasification. Biomass and Bioenergy. 7 August 2015;89:40-49

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A promising technology replacing fossil energy carriers for the production of electricity, heat, fuels for transportation and synthetic chemicals is steam gasification of biomass in a dual fluid bed (DFB). The principle of this technology is the separation into a gasification and a combustion reactor. Bed material, nowadays olivine, circulates between them, and has two functions. It acts as a heat carrier from the combustion to the gasification zone and as catalyst regarding gasification reactions. Today, an alternative to olivine does yet not exist.

In this work, experiments in a lab-scale test rig were performed investigating the catalytic activity of different fresh and used bed materials, such as olivine and quartz. The enhancement of the catalytic activity due to particle coatings was tested regarding the water-gas-shift reaction and steam reforming of toluene. Calcite is known as an active material in this respect and is therefore used as a benchmark substance.

Experiments revealed a correlation between the catalytic activity of bed particle coatings towards both the water-gas-shift reaction and the reduction of toluene by steam reforming. Results showed bed material particles with a calcium (Ca)-rich layer achieve satisfactory conversion of carbon monoxide and reduction of toluene. Furthermore, a qualitative comparison regarding hydrogen production relative to the benchmark material CaO is given for the water-gas-shift and steam reforming of toluene and ethene - used as model substance for lighter hydrocarbons. These results are the basis for further research on the catalytic properties of potential bed materials for DFB gasification of biomass.


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2020

Influence of bed materials on the performance of the Nong Bua dual fluidized bed gasification power plant in Thailand

Siriwongrungson V, Hongrapipat J, Kuba M, Rauch R, Pang S, Thaveesri J, Messner M, Hofbauer H. Influence of bed materials on the performance of the Nong Bua dual fluidized bed gasification power plant in Thailand. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. 2020;

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Bed materials and their catalytic activity are two main parameters that affect the performance of the dual fluidized bed (DFB) gasification system in terms of product gas composition and tar levels. Two sources of bed materials were used for the operation of a commercial DFB gasification system in Thailand, using woodchips as a biomass feedstock. One source of the bed materials was the calcined olivine which had been used in the Gussing Plant, Austria, and the other activated bed material was a mixture of fresh Chinese olivine and used Austrian olivine with additives of biomass ash, calcium hydroxide and dolomite. These bed materials were collected and analysed for morphological and chemical composition using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF). The product gas was cleaned in a scrubber to remove tars, from which the samples were collected for gravimetric tar analysis. Its composition data was automatically recorded at the operation site before it entered the gas engine. From the SEM, EDS and XRF analyses, calcium-rich layers around the bed materials were observed on the activated bed material. The inner layers of bed materials collected were homogeneous. Biomass ash, which was generally added to the bed materials, had significant calcium and potassium content. These calcium-rich layers of the bed materials, from the calcium hydroxide, biomass ash and dolomite, influenced system performance, which was determined by observing lower tar concentration and higher hydrogen concentration in the product gas.


Conference Papers | 2017

Influence of Calcium-rich Coatings on the Catalytic Activity of Bed Materials in CO2-Gasification of Biomass

Kuba M, Kirnbauer F, Hofbauer H. Influence of Calcium-rich Coatings on the Catalytic Activity of Bed Materials in CO2-Gasification of Biomass. 24th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (poster). June 2016, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Influence of coated olivine on the conversion of intermediate products from decomposition of biomass tars during gasification

Kuba M, Kirnbauer F, Hofbauer H. Influence of coated olivine on the conversion of intermediate products from decomposition of biomass tars during gasification. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. 1 March 2017;7(1): 11-21.

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Steam gasification of solid biomass in dual fluidized bed systems is a suitable technology for the production of chemicals, fuels for transportation, electricity, and district heating. Interaction between biomass ash and bed material leads to the development of Ca-rich bed particle layers. Furthermore, incomplete decomposition of biomass leads to the formation of tar components; among these are stable intermediate products such as 1H-indene and stable gaseous hydrocarbons such as methane. In this work, the influence of bed particle layers on the conversion of intermediate products such as 1H-indene and methane via steam reforming was investigated by conducting experiments in a lab-scale test rig. Satisfying conversion of 1H-indene into gaseous molecules (e.g., CO, CO2, H2) was achieved with used, layered olivine, whereas fresh olivine showed significantly poorer performance. Since steam reforming was connected to the water-gas-shift reaction for the tested hydrocarbons, investigations regarding carbon monoxide conversion in the presence of steam were conducted as well. Furthermore, a comparison of the influence of fresh and used bed material concerning the conversion of methane is presented, showing that methane is not affected by the bed material, independent of the presence of particle layers.
 


Conference contributions | 2011

Influence of combustion conditions on the genotoxic potential of fine particle emissions from small-scale wood combustion

Brunner T, Kelz J, Obernberger I, Javala P, Hirvonen M. Influence of combustion conditions on the genotoxic potential of fine particle emissions from small-scale wood combustion, Central European Biomass Conference 2011, 26th-29th of January 2011, Graz, Austria.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2018

Influence of drag laws on pressure and bed material recirculation rate in a cold flow model of an 8 MW dual fluidized bed system by means of CPFD

Kraft S, Kirnbauer F, Hofbauer H. Influence of drag laws on pressure and bed material recirculation rate in a cold flow model of an 8 MW dual fluidized bed system by means of CPFD. Particuology, February 2018;36:70-81.

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A cold flow model of an 8 MW dual fluidized bed (DFB) system is simulated using the commercial computational particle fluid dynamics (CPFD) software package Barracuda. The DFB system comprises a bubbling bed connected to a fast fluidized bed with the bed material circulating between them. As the hydrodynamics in hot DFB plants are complex because of high temperatures and many chemical reaction processes, cold flow models are used. Performing numerical simulations of cold flows enables a focus on the hydrodynamics as the chemistry and heat and mass transfer processes can be put aside. The drag law has a major influence on the hydrodynamics, and therefore its influence on pressure, particle distribution, and bed material recirculation rate is calculated using Barracuda and its results are compared with experimental results. The drag laws used were energy-minimization multiscale (EMMS), Ganser, Turton–Levenspiel, and a combination of Wen–Yu/Ergun. Eleven operating points were chosen for that study and each was calculated with the aforementioned drag laws. The EMMS drag law best predicted the pressure and distribution of the bed material in the different parts of the DFB system. For predicting the bed material recirculation rate, the Ganser drag law showed the best results. However, the drag laws often were not able to predict the experimentally found trends of the bed material recirculation rate. Indeed, the drag law significantly influences the hydrodynamic outcomes in a DFB system and must be chosen carefully to obtain meaningful simulation results. More research may enable recommendations as to which drag law is useful in simulations of a DFB system with CPFD.


Contributions to trade journals | 2009

Influence of dry and humid gaseous atmosphere on the thermal decomposition of calcium chloride and its impact on the remove of heavy metals by chlorination

Fraissler G, Jöller M, Brunner T, Obernberger I. Influence of dry and humid gaseous atmosphere on the thermal decomposition of calcium chloride and its impact on the remove of heavy metals by chlorination. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification. 2009;48(1):380-8.

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Contributions to trade journals | 2015

Influence of ethylene on the formation of mixed alcohols over a MoS2 catalyst using biomass-derived synthesis gas

Weber G, Rauch R, Hofbauer H. Influence of ethylene on the formation of mixed alcohols over a MoS2 catalyst using biomass-derived synthesis gas. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. 2015;5(1):85-94.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2016

Influence of firebed temperature on particle emissions in a residential wood pellet boiler

Gehrig M, Jäger D, Pelz SK, Weissinger A, Groll A, Thorwarth H, Haslinger W. Influence of firebed temperature on particle emissions in a residential wood pellet boiler. Atmospheric Environment. July 2016;136: 61-67.

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The crucial point in inorganic particle formation from biomass combustion is the temperature-dependent release of inorganic compounds, especially potassium (K). Currently, common wood fuels comprise of a comparatively low amount of K, but the increased usage of wood energy requires new feedstocks in the future. Potentially new feedstocks, such as short rotation coppice (SRC), fuels from agriculture (e.g., straw), or wood from broad-leafed trees of low rotation, contain usually high ash contents and/or high K concentrations. Apparently, these feedstocks will cause increased inorganic particle emissions from biomass combustion processes. The principle of a decreased firebed temperature as a primary measure aiming at a retention of K in the ashes of the firebed is a common approach for particle emission reduction and was investigated in several previous studies. The present study describes the usage of an ash-rich fuel from SRC pellets made from willow in a residential pellet boiler modified with an unique prototype of direct water-based firebed cooling. This test setup enables the study of the isolated impact of decreased firebed temperatures and its influence on the combustion process and emissions as well. A statistically significant effect of the firebed cooling on temperatures below the burner plate as on gaseous HCl and SO2 was found. The high ash content of the used fuel limited the effectiveness of the applied direct firebed cooling in residential biomass combustion. The accumulation of a thick and thermal insulating ash layer above the burner plate decreased the heat transfer, limited the cooling efficiency, and revealed deviations from the expected particle formation process.


Conference contributions | 2019

Influence of fuel ash and bed material on the water-gas-shift equilibrium in DFB steam gasification

Fürsatz K, Fuchs J, Bartik A, Kuba M, Hofbauer H. Influence of fuel ash and bed material on the water-gas-shift equilibrium in DFB steam gasification. ICPS 2019.

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The bed material chosen for dual fluidized bed steam gasification has an important effect on the performance of gasification. Depending on their characteristics and properties, bed materials can have either a higher or lower catalytic activity, which influences the product gas composition as well as the tar content in the product gas. More catalytically active bed materials, like limestone and olivine, improve the quality of the product gas by e.g. promoting the water-gas-shift reaction and tar reforming reaction. The layers formed on the bed material are another aspect influencing the product gas composition. These layers are formed by the interaction of bed material and fuel ash. The deviation from the water-gas-shift equilibrium was chosen to quantify the effect of several bed materials and ash layers on the catalytic activity. The bed materials tested were K-feldspar, limestone, and activated olivine, while the used fuels were softwood, chicken manure, a bark – chicken manure mixture, and a bark –straw – chicken manure mixture. The performed experiments showed that an increased catalytic activity can be achieved by either using a catalytically active bed materials or ash-rich fuels.

 


Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Influence of fuel feeding positions on gasification in dual fluidized bed gasifiers

Wilk V, Schmid JC, Hofbauer H. Influence of fuel feeding positions on gasification in dual fluidized bed gasifiers. Biomass Bioenergy. 2013;54:46-58.

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An in-bed and an on-bed feeding system are implemented in a dual fluidized bed gasifier in order to investigate the influence of the fuel feeding position on the gasification process. Two bed materials, fresh and used olivine, are used because of their varying catalytic activity. The comparison of in-bed and on-bed feeding of wood pellets shows that in-bed feeding is more favorable, because lower tar concentrations are achieved and the gas composition is closer to water-gas shift equilibrium. Better mixing of bed material and fuel particles occurs with in-bed feeding. The residence time of the gas phase in the fluidized bed is longer in the case of in-bed feeding, and therefore better performance of the gasifier is achieved. Sufficient residence time of the fuel in the bubbling bed is important when a less active bed material is used. More active bed material is capable of compensating for the shorter residence time of the gas phase in contact with bed material during on-bed feeding. •Experimental investigation of in-bed and on-bed feeding.•Two bed materials (catalytic activity) and two fuels (devolatilization behavior).•In-bed feeding more favorable due to lower tar concentration and better gas quality.•Residence time of the gas phase in the fluidized bed is longer during in-bed feeding.•More active bed material compensates for shorter residence time of the gas phase. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Contributions to trade journals | 2013

Influence of fuel particle size on gasification in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Influence of fuel particle size on gasification in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier. Fuel Process Technol. 2013;115:139-51.

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The influence of the distribution of fuel particle size on steam gasification was studied systematically in a dual fluidized bed gasifier. Pilot plant gasification experiments have been conducted using sawdust and pellets produced from the same raw material. Three different kinds of waste wood with a broad particle size distribution were also considered for comparison. The fuels differ in their content of particles smaller than 1 mm of equivalent diameter. With an increasing proportion of particles smaller than 1 mm, the product gas contained less H2 and more CO and CH4. Less product gas was generated and the concentration of tar increased. It is observed that entrainment of small fuel particles plays an important role in the dual fluidized bed gasifier. Based on the superficial gas velocity in the freeboard of the gasification reactor, a limiting diameter for the entrainment of fuel particles can be determined. Under the conditions investigated a total of 22 wt.% of fuel particles present in the mixture of sawdust and pellets was entrained very rapidly after feeding because of their size. They mainly devolatilize in the freeboard and only have limited contact with the catalytic bed material. Therefore, these volatiles are less likely to be reformed and more tar is found in the product gas. As a conclusion, the particle size determines the region where the thermal conversion of the fuel particle mainly takes place: within the fluidized bed or in the freeboard. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
 


Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Influence of Heterogeneous Secondary Reactions during Slow Pyrolysis on Char Oxidation Reactivity of Woody Biomass

Anca-Couce A, Dieguez-Alonso A, Zobel N, Berger A, Kienzl N, Behrendt F. Influence of Heterogeneous Secondary Reactions during Slow Pyrolysis on Char Oxidation Reactivity of Woody Biomass. Energy and Fuels. 16 March 2017;31(3): 2335-2344.

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The influence of heterogeneous secondary reactions on char oxidation reactivity, which can take place during slow pyrolysis processes in a woody biomass particle, is analyzed in this study. To this end, the oxidative behavior of primary char produced in a thermobalance with initial wood masses of a few milligrams is compared to the behavior of char produced under conditions enhancing secondary reactions, i.e., large particle and bed sizes in fixed-bed reactors. The influence of the maximum conversion temperature, heating rate, and catalytic effect of inorganics is also studied to compare the effect of each parameter. Results show that a significant reduction in reactivity takes place when char is produced under conditions enhancing these secondary reactions during pyrolysis. The effect is of similar order as the effect as a result of thermal annealing at 900 °C or the catalytic effect of alkali and alkaline earth metals. Therefore, the presence of heterogeneous secondary reactions during pyrolysis should be taken into account in studies addressing biomass char reactivity. Furthermore, it is shown that the reduction of reactivity as a result of secondary reactions is related to neither the loss of oxygen-containing functional groups nor the potential blocking of pores, specially micropores, resulting from the formation of this secondary char. The explanation may, therefore, lie on the deactivation or blocking of active sites by the secondary char.


Other publication | 2016

Influence of leak tightness and heat storage capacity of biomass room heating appliances on thermal efficiency

Sturmlechner R, Reichert G, Stressler H, Aigenbauer S, Schmidl C, Schwabl M, Haslinger W. Influence of leak tightness and heat storage capacity of biomass room heating appliances on thermal efficiency. 24th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (poster). June 2016, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2012

Influence of operating conditions on the performance of biomass-based Fischer–Tropsch synthesis

Sauciuc A, Abosteif Z, Weber G, Potetz A, Rauch R, Hofbauer H, Schaub G, Dumitrescu L. Influence of operating conditions on the performance of biomass-based Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Biomass Conversion. 2012;2(3):253-263.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2017

Influence of pellet length on performance of pellet room heaters under real life operation conditions

Wöhler M, Jaeger D, Reichert G, Schmidl C, Pelz SK. Influence of pellet length on performance of pellet room heaters under real life operation conditions. Renewable Energy. 1 May 2017;105: 66-75.

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Wood pellet combustion for heating is increasing in importance in Europe. However, the most commonly used heating appliances such as wood pellet stoves are responsible for emissions which could negatively affect human health. The emissions quality of pellet stoves is influenced by pellet properties and combustion phase characteristics. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of pellet length on the performance of pellets stoves under real life operation conditions. Three softwood pellet samples were produced, differing only in length. Combustion tests with two different types of pellet stoves were performed in steady and non-steady combustion phases. Gaseous and particulate emissions as well as fuel mass flow were measured. Results show a reduced fuel mass flow (up to 36%) into the combustion chamber for long pellets compared to short pellets. The results of the combustion tests show a considerable influence of pellet length on the performance of both pellet stoves. For example, carbon monoxide emissions and particulate emissions of one stove in nominal load operation increased for long pellets compared to short pellets from 185 mg/m3 to 882 mg/m3, and from 27 mg/m3 to 37 mg/m3 respectively. Results also show a considerable influence of the combustion phase on the emissions level.


Conference contributions | 2012

Influence of physical properties of the feedstock on gasification in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier

Wilk V, Hofbauer H. Influence of physical properties of the feedstock on gasification in a dual fluidized bed steam gasifier, International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) 2012, 3rd-6th of June 2012, Naples, Italy. p 979-804. (peer reviewed)

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Conference contributions | 2012

Influence of sampling rate for gravimetric determination of PM concentrations of a small scale pellet stove

Reichert G. Influence of sampling rate for gravimetric determination of PM concentrations of a small scale pellet stove, Conference ”Dust measuring procedures for small biomass furnaces” 2012, 7th of November 2012, Berlin, Germany.

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Peer Reviewed Scientific Journals | 2021

Influence of solvent temperature and type on naphthalene solubility for tar removal in a dual fluidized bed biomass gasification process

Tonpakdee P, Hongrapipat J, Siriwongrungson V, Rauch R, Pang S, Thaveesri J, Messner M, Kuba M, Hofbauer H. Influence of solvent temperature and type on naphthalene solubility for tar removal in a dual fluidized bed biomass gasification process. Current Applied Science and Technology. 2021.21(4):751-76.

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Tar condensation is a cause of blockage in downstream application of the gasification process. An oil scrubber is considered as an effective method for tar removal. In this research, the naphthalene solubility in different local Thai oils and water was investigated in a laboratory-scale test-rig. The solubility value was conducted at 30, 50, 70, and 80°C. Biodiesels investigated were rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and two different palm methyl esters (PME 1 and PME 2). Furthermore, vegetable oils including sunflower oil, rice bran oil, crude palm oil, and refined palm oil were examined. The results showed that higher temperature enhanced naphthalene solubility in all types of investigated oils. Biodiesel has the highest value of naphthalene solubility. All scrubbing oils have similar naphthalene solubility trends at the temperature range of 50-80°C in the order of RME > PME 1 > PME 2 > diesel > sunflower oil > refined palm oil > rice bran oil > crude palm oil. Based on these experimental investigations, PME 1 has a naphthalene solubility value similar to RME. Therefore, PME 1 has been selected to be tested as scrubbing solvent in the 1 MWel prototype dual fluidized gasifier located in Nong Bua district, Nakhon Sawan province, Thailand.


Conference Papers | 2017

Influence of sulfur components on the catalytic mixed alcohol synthesis based on wood gas derived from biomass steam

Binder, M., Rauch, R., Koch, M., Summers, M., Aichernig, C., and Hofbauer, H.: Influence of sulfur components on the catalytic mixed alcohol synthesis based on wood gas derived from biomass steam. In: Proceedings of the 25th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, 12 - 15 June 2017, Stockholm, Sweden.

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